Leonard Amaral, M.D., PhD, Emeritus Professor, Universidade Nova de Lisboa and Distinguished Invited Scientist Fellow of the Fundacao de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Portugal. Areas of current main contributions: Development of therapy by which the resistance of MDR/XDR Mtb is by-passed and the non-killing macrophage is transformed into a killer of MDR/XDR Mtb. Therapy of MDR/XDR TB with an inexpensive drug that is beyond patent protection, has no serious toxicity and has been now shown to cure XDR TB. Development of new methods for the characterisation, evaluation and assessment of efflux pumps that render bacteria and cancer cells resistant to therapy. Demonstration of biophysical/biochem mechanisms by which efflux pumps render bacteria multi-drug resistant. Development of new theories for therapy of cancer based upon the 2nd law of thermodynamics.