ISSN: 2168-9776
Forest Research: Open Access
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business
 

Age-dependent and winter temperature pathways regulate flowering in perennial plants

Jin-Zhi Zhang* and Chun-Gen Hu
Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology (Ministry of Education), College of Horticulture and Forestry Science, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
*Corresponding Author : Prof. Jin-Zhi Zhang
Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology (Ministry of Education)
College of Horticulture and Forestry Science
Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Tel: +86-27-8728-1897
E-mail: jinzhizhang@mail.hzau.edu.cn
Received December 24, 2013; Accepted December 26, 2013; Published December 28, 2013
Citation: Zhang JZ, Hu CG (2013) Age-dependent and Winter Temperature Pathways Regulate Flowering in Perennial Plants. Forest Res 3:e106. doi: 10.4172/2168-9776.1000e106
Copyright: © 2013 Zhang JZ, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Forest Research: Open Access

Flowering time plays significant role for the reproductive success of plants. If flowering is initiated at the wrong time, it will affect the number of seeds produced and significantly reduce reproductive success. Arabidopsis, as the premier model system for molecular and genetic analyses of plant development, has provided a substantial insight into important pathways and mechanisms of its architecture. Four major pathways to flowering have been characterized in Arabidopsis; including environmental induction through photoperiod, temperature, autonomous floral initiation, and regulation by gibberellins [1]. Now a new pathway has been added to these known genetic pathways: age pathway [2]. Recently, targets of two age-regulated miRNAs (miR156 and miR172) have been implicated in the timely control of several phase transitions in various plant species [2-4].
MiR156 is highly abundant in juvenile stage, and decreases during subsequent adult stage, while miR172 has an opposite expression pattern [2,4], thereby suggesting a complementary regulatory relationship between miR156 and miR172. Over-expression of miR156 negatively regulates several SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes, and delays both the juvenile-to-adult and adult-to-reproductive phase transitions. However, miR156/172 are often excluded from these models, because their extreme genetic redundancy, as well as the complexity of their regulation by miRNAs have made it difficult to pinpoint their exact functions in development [4]. Interestingly, more and more studies indicate that the age pathway play an important role in regulating flowering of annual and perennial plants.
The progress in understanding the flowering process in model plant systems has given us an insight into the molecular events responsible for transition from vegetative to reproductive phase in other plants. Perennials undergo transitions are also triggered during their life cycle by some external and endogenous factors [1]. Therefore, most of the current molecular knowledge on the flowering process has been obtained from the model plant system because of a variety of technical limitations associated with perennial plants, usually related to their size, long generation times, as well as limited genetic knowledge [5]. For perennial plants, flowering occurs only in the adult phase [1,6] and is restricted to a subset of axillary meristems compare with annual plants to ensure continuation of vegetative growth [5]. Another trait vital to survival is the capacity of meristems to transit into a dormant and freezing-tolerant state at the end of the growing season [7]. The biology of these seasonal transitions in shoot apical meristem behavior cannot be investigated in Arabidopsis, perhaps explaining why the understanding of their molecular regulation is still limited. Recently, Bergonzi et al. [8] and Zhou et al. [9] studied how molecular signals translate environmental information—such as exposure to a low temperature or changes in day-length and physiological information, such as age of the plant—into signals that promote flowering of perennial plants.
During Cardamine flexuosa and Arabis alpine flowering regulation process, age and vernalization pathways are integrated through the regulation of miR156 and miR172. Zhou et al. [9] studied the molecular mechanisms that regulate flowering in the biennial-toperennial Cardamine flexuosa [10]. The results demonstrate that the levels of miR156 and miR172 determine the timing of sensitivity in response to low temperature in Cardamine flexuosa. Age and vernalization pathways coordinately regulate flowering through modulating the expression of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1, a flower-promoting MADS-box gene, and removing two repressors, FLOWERING LOCUS C, which is repressed by vernalization, and TARGET OF EAT1, which is down-regulated by the miR156-SPL-miR172 cascade in Cardamine flexuosa [10].
The findings represent the first example of plants using age cues to respond to environmental cues, and thus may have implications for plant evolution. Meanwhile, Bergonzi et al. (2013) used Arabis alpina as a model, to study how increasing age and exposure to winter cold coordinate to establish competence to flowering [8,9]. The results also indicate that miR156 levels decline as Arabis alpina ages, causing increased production of SPL genes and ensuring that flowering occurs in response to low temperature of winter. On the other hand, the age at which plants respond to vernalization can be altered by manipulating miR156 levels.
Although miR156 and miR172 levels are uncoupled differently in Arabis alpina compared with Arabidopsis, miR156 abundance represents the timer controlling age dependent flowering responses to cold. Additionally, the results also show that the AP2 transcription factor (PEP2), a target of miR172, prevents flowering before vernalization [8]. These findings indicate that miR156 and PEP2/PEP1 act in parallel repressive pathways to ensure that Arabis alpina meristems become competent to flower only if they have reached the appropriate age and have been exposed to winter temperatures [8].
Taken together, the integration of age and vernalization pathways offers an advantage for the perennial growth habit by ensuring that plants do not flower until they develop axillary vegetative shoots and sufficient biomass.
 
References
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
 
Share This Article
   
 
   
 
Relevant Topics
Disc
Disc Afforestation
Disc Atmosphere
Disc Atmospheric Chemistry
Disc Atmospheric inversions
Disc Bioenergy
Disc Biofuels
Disc Biosphere
Disc Cartogram
Disc Cartography
Disc Change detection remote sensing
Disc Chemical Oceanography
Disc Chlorophyll Fluorescence
Disc Climate Change
Disc Climatology
Disc Coastal Meteorology
Disc Coniferous Forest
Disc Convective Storms
Disc Coppicing
Disc Crystallography
Disc Deciduous Forest
Disc Deforestation
Disc Disaster Science
Disc ELNINO Effect
Disc Earth Science
Disc Ecological Succession
Disc Ecology
Disc Forecasting Algorithms
Disc Forest Animals
Disc Forest Conservation
Disc Forest Ecology
Disc Forest Fire
Disc Forest Pathology
Disc Forest Products
Disc Forest Service
Disc Forestry
Disc Gemology
Disc Geochemistry
Disc Geochronology
Disc Geodesy
Disc Geodynamics
Disc Geographic information system (GIS)
Disc Geoinformatics
Disc Geomatics
Disc Geomicrobiology
Disc Geomorphology
Disc Geophysics
Disc Geosciences
Disc Geostatistics
Disc Geovisualization
Disc Glaciology
Disc Global-Warming
Disc Hurricane Climatology
Disc Lidar Remote Sensing
Disc Mesoscale Systems
Disc Mineralogy
Disc Multispectral Remote Sensing
Disc Numerical Weather Prediction
Disc Ocean Warming
Disc Operational Forecasting
Disc Ozone Layer
Disc Permaculture
Disc Petrified Forest
Disc Plantation
Disc Polar Melting
Disc Precipitation
Disc Radiometry
Disc Rain Forest
Disc Redwood Forest
Disc Remote Sensing
Disc Remote Sensing of Environment
Disc Remote sensing agriculture
Disc Remote sensing images
Disc Remote sensing satellites
Disc Remote sensing techniques
Disc Satellite Radiance
Disc Sherwood Forest
Disc Silviculture
Disc Species-Diversity
Disc Spectral Response Patterns
Disc Sustained Forestry
Disc Synoptic Climatology
Disc Temperate Deciduous Forest
Disc Tornado Climatology
Disc Twilight Forest
Disc Universal Forest Products
Disc Urban Forestry
Disc Watershed Management
Disc Weather and Forecasting
Disc Wildcrafting
Disc Wildfire
 
Recommended Journals
Disc Remote Sensing & GIS Journals
Disc Earth Science & Climatic Change Journal
Disc Climatology & Weather forecasting Journal
  View More»
 
Recommended Conferences
Disc Alternative Medicine 2016
June 6-8, 2016 Beijing, China
Disc International Conference on Plant Physiology
June 09-11, 2016 Dallas, USA
Disc 4th International Conference on Plant Genomics  
July 14-15, 2016 Brisbane, Australia
View More»
 
Article Tools
Disc Export citation
Disc Share/Blog this article
 
Article usage
  Total views: 11155
  [From(publication date):
January-2014 - Jun 01, 2016]
  Breakdown by view type
  HTML page views : 7425
  PDF downloads :3730
 
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

 
OMICS International Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
 
 
OMICS International Conferences 2016-17
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings
 
 

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2016 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version