ISSN: 2168-9652
Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business
 

PTGS2 Effectively Suppress Dendritic Cell Immunity

M Salahuddin1*, MdSaidur Rahman2, A K Paul3, Md. Selim Ahmed1, and Mohammad Alam Miah4
1Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
2Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, 4726 Seodong-daero, Anseong, Gyeonggi-Do 456-756, Republic of Korea
3School of Biotechnology, Suranaree University of Technology, Korat, Thailand
4Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh
*Corresponding Author : M. Salahuddin
Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University
Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
Tel: +8210-6492-7621
E-mail: ssdin23@gmail.com
Received January 05, 2014; Accepted January 06, 2014; Published January 09, 2014
Citation: Salahuddin M, Rahman M, Paul AK, Ahmed MS, Miah MA (2014) PTGS2 Effectively Suppress Dendritic Cell Immunity. Biochem Physiol 3:e122. doi:10.4172/2168-9652.1000e122
Copyright: © 2014 Salahuddin M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access

Abstract

Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), also known as cyclooxygenase (COX), is a key enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis,regulates dioxygenase and peroxidase activity. The major metabolites of PTGS2 are PGE2, PGF2, PGD2, PGI2, and TXA2. All of these are steroid and act as immunosuppressive agentsbut differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. It is a well-known fact that PTGS2 prompt and aggrandize the cancer condition by proliferation, differentiation, and migration of carcinogenic cells in different organs in animals including human, therefore considered as a novel target for the prevention of cancer. Several researchers have discoverednumerous pharmacological inhibitors of PTGS2 to prevent the cancer,however prevention and treatment of cancer by inhibiting PTGS2 from dendritic cell has not been properly studied. Therefore, indirect/direct molecular silencing of PTGS2 by siRNA/shRNA or PTGS2 knockout from DC to prevent cancer means PTGS2 mediated DC vaccine may be an attractive approach to prevent cancer in near future.

Keywords
PTGS2; Dendritic Cell; Immunity; Cancer
Abbreviations
KO: Knockout; KD: Knockdown; DC: Dendritic Cell; MDCC: Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell; CD: Cluster of Differentiation; MHC: Major Histocompatibility Complex; MMP: Matrix Metalloproteinase
Editorial
Dendritic cells (DC) are a special type of leukocytic immune sentinel able to aware the immune system for the presence of infections and play a central role in the initiation of both innate and adaptive immune responses [1-3]. Nowadays, DC isconsidered as potential candidate for vaccine preparation against cancer and autoimmune diseases [4-5]. Cox2 dampen the immune function of several immune cells including dendritic cell [6-7]. Increased amounts of COX2 are commonly found in both premalignant tissues and malignant tumors such as lung, breast, prostate, ovary, head, neck, skin, and colorectal cancer [8-20]. As a potential inducers of oncogenes, growth factors, and tumor promoters, COX2 affects many processes involved in carcinogenesis, therefore become an attractive therapeutic target. It induces xenobiotic metabolism, angiogenesis, apoptosis, inflammation, immunosuppression, and invasiveness [21]. While ample clinical and experimental data support the critical role of COX2 inthe prevention of cancer [13-20], the therapeutic strategy to inhibit PTGS2 in DC to prevent cancer remain to be clarified. Therefore, understanding the mechanism how PTGS2 prevent cancer via DC mediated immunity is a matter of utmost importance.
PTGS2/COX2 is highly induced in different types of cancerous cell and promotes cancer in diverse animals [22-25]. Previous studies have shown that PTGS2prompt cancer by inducing immunosuppressive environment [26,30]. Recently, it has been shown that, PTGS2 decrease the immune function of T-cell by expressing Foxp3 [27]. Interestingly, PTGS2found to be highly induced in dendritic cell. DC are present in the processed antigen [28], stimulate T-cell to maintain constant immune protection against foreign antigen. PTGS2 highly induced in DCto prevent the immunostimulatory capacity [29-30] and the DC highly express PTGS2are unable to stimulate T-cell against cancer. Interestingly, when COX2 expression dampens or reduces by any means (such as, pharmacological inhibition, KD, KO) from DC, it restores the capacity to stimulate T-cell against cancer and several experiments show that when PTGS2 inhibitor used in DC it can prevent cancer compared of wild type DC [29,30].
High expression of PTGS2 suppresses the immune function of DCthrough the production of several immunosuppressive steroids metabolites such as, PTGS2 like PGG2, PGE2, and PGH2 [21]. PGE2 is the main culprit from them who made the immunosuppressive environment by expressing FOXp3 in DC and these types of DC ultimately fails to stimulate T-cell. Again excessive expression of PTGS2 leads to huge secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines IL10 [30] and maintain immune suppressive tumor microenvironment to protectthe tumor cell and reduce the stimulatory capacity of DC and at the same time prevent the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, responsible for T-cell stimulation.
Simultaneously, high amount of PTGS2 produce excessive PGE2 that’s enhances production of MDCC (Myeloid derived DC) to suppress immune response [31]. Usually, immature DC shows lower level of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules whereas mature DC hasincreasedlevel of MHC and costimulatorymolecules [28]. However, inhibition of PTGS2 from immature DC greatly increases the costimulatory molecules CD86 and CD80 and also MHC I and MHC class II in contrast to wild type DC [29]. The similar results in wild type of DC have been reported even after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (mDC) compare to cox2 inhibitor treated DC.
PTGS2expression dampens the migration and invasion capacity of DC. It is reported that cox-2 expression enhances the activation of proteolytic enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 and thereby increase lymphovascular invasion of cancer cell [32] and may be it also associated with migratory chemokines CCR7 up regulation in DC. Taken together, these observations suggest that the presence of COX2 appears to play a critical role in tumor cell migration and invasion.When wild type DC culture with T-cell it also reduces the secretion of tumor lysis cytokine INFγ and some studies revealed that PTGS2 silenced DC strongly enhance INFγ [33] to destroy cancer cell. Together these data suggest that PTGS2 act as a negative immune regulator of DC.
Summary
PTGS2 expression exaggerates cancer condition by proliferation, differentiation and migration of cancer cell and creates an effective immunosuppressive condition to immune cells. When PTGS2 induces in DC it gives negative effects on DC proliferation, differentiation and maturation. Silencing of PTGS2 by any means enhances DC immunity and T-cell stimulation capacity by increasing the level of MHCs and co-stimulatory molecules, secretion of immunostimulatory cytokines (IL12, INfγ) and reduction of immunosuppressive cytokine IL10 and FoxP3 expression.
References
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
 
Share This Article
   
 
   
 
Relevant Topics
Disc
Disc Advanced Bioprocess Products
Disc Advances in Bioprocess Technology
Disc Advances in Biotechniques
Disc Advances in Food Bioprocess Technology
Disc Anaerobic glycolysis
Disc Analytical Biochemistry
Disc Animal biochemistry
Disc Antibodies
Disc Applications of Bioinformatics
Disc Applied Biochemistry
Disc Bacterial transcriptome
Disc Biochemical Molecules
Disc Biochemical Process
Disc Biochemical pharmacology
Disc Biochemistry
Disc Bioinformatics Algorithms
Disc Bioinformatics Databases
Disc Bioinformatics Tools
Disc Biomolecular Structure and Function
Disc Biomolecules
Disc Bioprocess Engineering
Disc Bioprocess Industry and Market Analysis
Disc Bioprocess Manufacturing
Disc Bioprocess Modelling
Disc Bioprocess and Systems Engineering
Disc Bioprocessing and Biopharma Manufacturing
Disc Blood Biochemistry
Disc Cancer Metabolomics
Disc Cancer Pharmacology
Disc Cancer Proteomics
Disc Carbohydrate Biochemistry
Disc Carbohydrate Metabolism
Disc Carbohydrates Biochemistry
Disc Cardiac Markers
Disc Cell Biology Junctions
Disc Cell Biology Techniques
Disc Cell Cycle
Disc Cell Death: Apoptosis
Disc Cell Physiology
Disc Cell Regeneration
Disc Cell synthesis
Disc Cellular Biochemistry
Disc Cellular Biology
Disc Cellular DNA Studies
Disc Cellular Dynamics
Disc Cellular Signalling
Disc Cellular and Molecular Biology
Disc Cellular and molecular Biochemistry
Disc Clinical Anatomy
Disc Clinical Biochemistry
Disc Clinical Chemistry
Disc Clinical Proteomics
Disc Clinical_Biochemistry
Disc Comparative Biochemistry
Disc Comparative Anatomy
Disc Comparative Physiology
Disc Comparative transcriptomics
Disc Current Proteomics
Disc Developmental Anatomy
Disc Diagnostics
Disc Electrolytes
Disc Environmental Biochemistry
Disc Environmental Metabolomics
Disc Enzyme Activity
Disc Epigenetics
Disc Fishery biochemistry
Disc Food Biochemistry
Disc Forensic Anatomy
Disc Forensic Biochemistry
Disc Gastro-endocrinology
Disc Gene Expression and Regulation
Disc Gene Expression profiling
Disc Genome-enabled biochemistry
Disc Germ cell tumours
Disc Germination
Disc Glycome
Disc Green Chemistry
Disc Hippocampus
Disc Horticulture
Disc Human Anatomy
Disc Human Biochemistry
Disc Human Metabolome Database
Disc Human Metabolomics
Disc Human Physiology
Disc Human Proteome Project Applications
Disc Hypothalamus
Disc Industrial Bioprocessing
Disc Inorganic biochemistry
Disc Limbic System
Disc Lipid Biochemistry
Disc Liver Diseases
Disc Liver Function Tests
Disc Mass Spectrometry in Metabolomics
Disc Mass Spectrometry in Proteomics
Disc Medical Biochemistry
Disc Medical_Biochemistry
Disc Membrane Biochemistry
Disc Metabolic Fingerprinting
Disc Metabolic Profiling
Disc Metabolites
Disc Metabolome
Disc Metabolome Research
Disc Metabolomic Analysis
Disc Metabolomic Database
Disc Metabolomic Tools
Disc Metabolomics Applications
Disc Methods and Techniques in Molecular Biology
Disc Microarray
Disc Microarray Proteomics
Disc Microbial Assay
Disc Microbial Assay of Antibiotic
Disc Microbial Biofuels
Disc Microbial Biosensor
Disc Microbial Fermentation
Disc Microbial Metabolomics
Disc Microbial Nutrition
Disc Molecular Biochemistry
Disc Molecular Biotechnology
Disc Molecular Cell
Disc Molecular Genetics
Disc Molecular and Cellular Proteomics
Disc Molecular and cellular pharmacology
Disc Morphology
Disc Mouse transcriptome
Disc Neural Model
Disc Neuro-anatomy
Disc Neurobiology
Disc Neurological disorders
Disc Neurosurgery
Disc Non coding MRNA
Disc Nucleic Acid
Disc Nutritional Biochemistry
Disc Organic biochemistry
Disc Palynology
Disc Pesticide Biochemistry
Disc Pesticides
Disc Pesticides Biochemistry
Disc Pharmaceutical Bioprocessing
Disc Pharmacology
Disc Pharmacometabolomics
Disc Phytochemical
Disc Pigments
Disc Pituitary
Disc Plant Anatomy
Disc Plant Biochemistry
Disc Plant Biosynthesis
Disc Plant Biotechnology
Disc Plant Ecology
Disc Plant Genomes
Disc Plant Hormones
Disc Plant Morphology
Disc Plant Taxonomy
Disc Preparative Biochemistry
Disc Process Biochemistry
Disc Profiling
Disc Protein Biochemistry
Disc Protein Sequence Analysis
Disc Protein engineering
Disc Protein_Biochemistry
Disc Proteome
Disc Proteome Profiling
Disc Proteomic Analysis
Disc Proteomic Biomarkers
Disc Proteomics Clinical Applications
Disc Proteomics Research
Disc Proteomics Science
Disc Python for Bioinformatics
Disc Quantitative Proteomics
Disc RNA sequencing
Disc RNA sequencing and analysis
Disc Renal Function Test
Disc Renal Physiology
Disc Sequencing
Disc Small RNA Sequencing
Disc Soil Biochemistry
Disc Soil_Biochemistry
Disc Spinal Cord
Disc Stem Cell Biology
Disc Stem Cell Bioprocessing
Disc Structural biology
Disc Surgical Anatomy
Disc Targeted Metabolomics
Disc Transcripotme
Disc Transcriptional Attenuation
Disc Transcriptional Regulation
Disc Transcriptome analysis
Disc Transcriptomics
Disc Transformation
Disc Traumatic Brain Injury
Disc Ultrasound Technologies in Food Industry
 
Recommended Journals
Disc Cellular Biology Journal
Disc Bioinformatics Journal
Disc Transcriptomics Journal
Disc Proteomics Journal
Disc Physiobiochemical Metabolism Journal
Disc Metabolomics Journal
Disc Biochemical Technology Journal
Disc Bioprocessing Journal
Disc Plant Physiology Journal
Disc Clinical Biochemistry Journal
Disc Molecular Biology Journal
Disc Neurophysiology Journal
Disc Anatomy Journal
Disc Plant Biochemistry Journal
Disc Analytical Biochemistry Journal
Disc Pharmacology Journal
  View More»
 
Recommended Conferences
Disc Anatomy and Physiology Summit
Aug 11-13, 2016, Birmingham, UK
Disc Bipolar Disorders Summit
Aug 22-23, 2016, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Disc 8th Neurology Congress
Sept 10-12, 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Disc 4th Neuropharmacology Congress  
Sept 15-17, 2016, San Antonio, USA
Disc Biochemistry Congress
Oct 13-15, 2016, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Disc Microbial Physiology and Genomics Congress
Oct 20-22, 2016, Rome, Italy
View More»
 
Article Tools
Disc Export citation
Disc Share/Blog this article
 
Article usage
  Total views: 11183
  [From(publication date):
February-2014 - Jun 26, 2016]
  Breakdown by view type
  HTML page views : 7453
  PDF downloads :3730
 
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

 
OMICS International Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
 
 
OMICS International Conferences 2016-17
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings
 
 

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2016 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version