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ISSN: 2167-0234
Journal of Business & Financial Affairs
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Determination of Youth Migration the Case of Tsegedie Wereda

Abrha FW*

Aksum University, Aksum, Tigray, Ethiopia

*Corresponding Author:
Fitsum Weldu Abrha
MA, Aksum University, Aksum
Tigray, Ethiopia
Tel: +251 347753645
E-mail: abrha.fitsum@yahoo.com

Received Date: November 02, 2016 Accepted Date: December 22, 2016 Published Date: January 02, 2017

Citation: Abrha FW (2017) Determination of Youth Migration the Case of Tsegedie Wereda. J Bus Fin Aff 5: 234. doi: 10.4172/2167-0234.1000234

Copyright: © 2017 Abrha FW. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

The study is conducted in Tsegede wereda found in the western zone of Tigray having the objective of assessing the determinants of youth migration in the wereda. The deal with the study, questionnaires and interview data gathering instruments were applied to collect data from the primary. The collected data were presented, analyzed and interpreted though both qualitative and quantitative methods of data analyzing. The data’s are presented and discussed in tabulations using numbers and percentages beside to the description of finding from the interview. Most of the adults in the study area have good knowledge on migration simply but they do not have enough knowledge on the overall impacts of migration. This is to mean that have no enough knowledge on migration. According to the data, the most frequently migrated part of the society are the adults, the most reproductive one. In the area under the study the adults are migrating because of different reasons like shortage of income, absence of good work opportunity, lack of land of plough to be a modern farmer, the desire to be rich in a short period of time because of some people get rich with such kind of opportunities, and lack of awareness on the social, political, economic and academic and psychological consequences of migration. The adults only show what is there in terms of money but not consider what is there in relation to the above mentioned problems.

Keywords

Youth migration; Tsegede wereda; Western zone; IOM

Introduction

Background of the study

Migration is the movement of people from one place to another place. This type of migration can be permanent, temporary, volunteer or forced. People can move from one place to another place outside its country, like moving from Asia to Germany, like moving from Ethiopia to Libya and inside its country, like Aksum to Addis Ababa and from shire to Humera immigration.

Permanent migration is when someone moves from one to another and has no plan to return his/her original home. Temporary migration is limited by time. This could be for seasonal employment. Forced migration involves the migration having no choice while voluntary migration is done by self-need without force [1].

People migrate from place to place for different reasons. As it is expressed by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the main reasons for migration of people from one place to another place are: economic, social, political and environmental. As this organization justified it, the economical migration is related with moving to another place to find work or peruse a particular career. Social migration is to be closer for families or friends for a better quality of life while political migration is moving to another place to escape war or political persuasion and environmental migration occurs as a result of nature disasters like earth quake [2].

Thus, this research focuses on the type of migration that people made to seek job or to find work to the western countries to have better life that they are or as a result of the economic problem they face.

The youth employment crisis pushes millions of people, especially youth women and men towards the decision to migrate with the purpose of seeking alternatives to improve their job prospects. Many of them migrate to urban areas and big cities within their countries or seek new opportunities in foreign countries. According to the statistics of IOM (2009), roughly 27 million leave their countries of birth to seek employment aboard as international migration [2]. International migration can bring new opportunities, in terms of employment and training but youth workers, especially youth men and women and those in irregular situations face certain challenges and vulnerabilities in the migration. The labor migration experiences can end up representing either an opportunity or a risky to youth people and can lead them to decent work or it’s very opposite, depending on policies and measures supporting them such as provision of better knowledge to the world of work, more and better social protection, education and training for employment, entrepreneurship development, social inclusion and an effective institutional frame work [2].

The Ethiopian youth are also migrating to aboard, especially to the western countries through facing so many problems and challenges from every corner of the countries. As the student researcher observes and listens to mass Medias, especially TV and radio, the Ethiopian youth who migrate to Arab countries are facing very difficult challenges and even up to life lose.

This study tries to figure out the determinant factors of youth migration to western countries, especially the youth of Tsegede wereda.

Statement of the problem

People migrate from place to place not for the sake of migrating of moving but they have their own reasons and aims. There are different determinant factors that make people migrate. For instance, it is expressed by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the main reasons for migration of people from one place to another place are: economic, social, political and environmental. Besides, one of the major pulls for migration of people was the prospect of freedom in various areas of life. For example, religious freedom may be important to a migrant who cannot openly practice his religious in his home country.

But, the degree of migration differs in terms of educational background, level of skills they have, legality and numbers. Youth migrants from poorer economic backgrounds and with fewer skills and educational attainment were seen as more and more likely to migrate irregularly. Under circumstance that put their health or lives at risk and to end up in indecent working conditions.

And this is why we see and hear that people from countries like Ethiopia, (poor country) and the like are migrating to western countries like Kuwait, Dubai (reach countries).

In the current situation, there are a lot of words that people can work; there is a relatively good access of education and scientific way of agricultural production in Ethiopia but still there is migration especially to western countries. So why do people made migration is not known and that is why the student researcher initiated to conduct a research on the determinants of youth migration to western countries. Hence, the main aim of this research was to figure out the determinant factors of youth in Tsegede wereda.

Research questions

This research was conducted to investigate and answer the following main research questions.

1. What are determinants factors for youth migration in wereda Tsegede.

2. What is the impact of migration of youth for the youth themselves and the study area?

Objectives of the study

This research paper has both general and specific objectives.

General objectives: The overall objective of this study was to investigate the determinants of youth migration in wereda Tsegede.

Specific objectives: The specific objectives of this study are:

1. To assess the determinant factors of youth migration in the study area.

2. To explain the socio-economic impacts of migration in the area under the study.

3. To create positive attitude towards migration on youth in the study area.

4. To help for the creation of awareness on migration

Significance of the study

This research paper may help in the following aspects. This study tried to identify the determinant factors of youth migration. As a result, it helps youths to have good awareness on the impact of migration or avoids the negative attitude towards migration and reinforces them to work in their home land. Besides, it will also help for other researchers as a reference for further researches.

Scope of the study

This study was meaningful if it were being zonal or regional, because as the sample size increases, the reliability of the study increases. But, because of the constraints of shortage of access, time and money and to manage the study in a meaningful way, the research paper was delimited in three preparatory schools of wereda Tsegede.

Limitation of the study

In doing this research, the researcher had faced the following limitations

1. There was lack of experiences in conducting the senior essay on how to deal with it.

2. There was also lack of accesses due to the fact that the researcher was being serving in very remote areas that have no accesses.

3. Because of the too long distance between the researcher and the advisor, there was a very big problem in getting updated comments from the respected advisor. However, for the successful accomplishment of the paper the researcher exerted the necessary efforts.

Organization of the study

This study has five chapters. Chapter one, is about introduction part. Chapter two is about review of the related literature. Chapter three deals with the methodology part which consists of data sources, instruments to collect data, sample size and sampling technique and methods of data analysis. The fourth chapter was presenting, discussing, interpreting of data and the last chapter is about summary and recommendation.

Review of Related Literature

Migration

Migration is the movement of people from one place to another place. This type of migration can be permanent, temporary, volunteer or forced. People can move from one place to another place outside its country, like moving from Asia to Germany, and from Ethiopia to Libya and inside its country, like the movement of people from Aksum to Addis Ababa and from shire to Humera are migration. Permanent migration is when someone moves from one to another and has no plan to return his/her original home. Temporary migration is limited by time. This could be for seasonal employment. Forced migration involves the migration having no choice while volunteer migration is done by self-need without force [1].

Migration refers to the movement of people from one geographic area to another geographic area in order to establish a new residence. Before people actually migrate, they usually compare relative opportunities offered by the present and anticipated habit [3].

Permanent migration is when someone moves from one place to another and has no plans to return to their original home. Temporary migration is limited by time. This could be for seasonal employment. Forced migration involves the migrant having no choice but to move. Voluntary migration is the opposite of this. International migration is when a person moves from one country to another country. For example people moves from the UK to the USA. Internal migration is when people migrate within the same country or region. An example of this would be someone migrating from Manchester to London migration is defined as a permanent or semi-permanent change of residence of an individual or group of people, usually for more than one year. Migration changes continually and is affected by changes in the political circumstances of a country the social and economic circumstances, and the physical geography [4].

Migration is the periodic departure and turn of a population. It is best developed in insects like the butterflies, dragonflies, fishes like eels, and in several birds and mammals. Migration movements are controlled by circadian, lunar and tidal rhythms as well as season`s variations [5].

Root causes of migration

Migration is a complex process and has been a feature of human societies for many centuries. There are many reasons why people choose to migrate, including; poverty armed conflict social strife political turmoil economic hardships [6]. People have moved from their home countries, for all sorts of reasons. Some are drawn to new places by `pull` factors, others find it difficult to remain where they are and migrate because of `push` factors. These have contributed to the recent movement of people here but are also the reason why people from here have emigrant to other countries. Historically some were transported or sold into slavery or left because of poverty, hunger, persecution, discrimination, civil war, unemployment and, more recently, simply for education and better jobs [7].

There are a number of “pull” factors that draw people towards countries like the United States to seek a better life. Aging populations and low fertility rates in industrialized countries have resulted in a decline in “replacement workers” entering the work force, while also creating greater demand for service-sector jobs and low-skills employment. Developed countries like US have come to rely on immigrant labor to fulfill their labor needs and will need to so even more in the future as the country faces a mass retirement of body boomers. In the absence of a livable wage, access to credit, insurance, or social welfare benefits, the value of migration is greater than its hardship or potential for exploitation (Ibid).

Types of migration

There are various types of migration classification these are internal and international migration, voluntary and forced migration and permanent and temporary migration. Furthermore the phenomenon of migration has often been classified in to various types on the basic motivation, distance and time. Because of motivation migration depend up on factors that make the migrants move.

Voluntary migration: The major reason for voluntary migration is economic. Almost all studies confirm that most of the migrants (excluding forced and sequential migration) have moved in search of better economic opportunities. Hence “migration is normally viewed as an economic phenomenon. Though noneconomic factors obviously have some bearing, most studies concur those migrants leave their area of origin primarily because of lack of economic opportunities, in the hope of finding better opportunities elsewhere” (Ibid).

Voluntary migration may be temporary or permanent. One is a temporary migration either because he is unwilling to settle down permanently in the host country or because the circumstances in the host country do not permit him to a permanent immigrant. Many migrants to the Middle East, for example, have no inclination to settle down permanently. They would rather prefer to work therefore some time and a large number of immigrants in different countries, including in the Middle East countries, who cannot extend their stay even if they would like to do so. Immigrant works that are recruited on contact basis will have to return once the contact periods over unless they succeed in getting another job and are permitted to extend their stay. Same countries hire labor from other countries for agriculture opportunities. Many of them may be regular migrants. Many countries admit temporary migrant labor on a systematic basis. Throughout history, there has been movement of people across national bounders for setting down in new places. However, the nineteenth and early twenty centuries witnessed permanent inter-continental migration on a precedent scale (Ibid).

Forced Migration: This is a type of migration occurring when people are forced by the states or some other political or military power. Forced migration is produced by power that one individual or group possess over another individuals, Example, slave trade have gone to Africa for countries, take people by force and making them live in another countries and repatriations and feeling of people due to political or religious persecution (Ibid).

Push and pull factors of migration

Pull factors: Migrations are drawn increasingly to countries by the following factors; Developed countries, or industrialized city areas within countries, draw labor from countries or areas where incomes are lower. International transport has never been easier to access information. Falling birth rates in developed countries contribute to labor shortages and skills gaps. Extra people are required when there is rapid economic expansion. People are drawn to stable democracies where human rights and religious freedoms are more likely to be respected. Many people in other parts of the world speak English. Youth people move in order to get better jobs or improve their qualifications, including their language skills.

Push factors: Negative factors at home add to the reasons why people feel compelled to move. Lack of prospects for career advancement, poverty and low income, high unemployment rates, persecution and poor human rights, internal conflict and war, natural disasters, climate change and famine are the main push factors. Other push factors include primitive conditions, natural disasters, poor medical care, as well as slavery and political fear. Push factors come in many forms. Sometimes these factors leave people with no choice but to leave their country of origin. Below are three examples of push factors that drive people to emigrate from their home countries.

Lack of jobs/ poverty; economic factors provide the main motivation behind migration. In fact, according to the International Labor Organization, approximately half of the total population of current international migrants, or about 100 million migrant workers, have left home to find better job and lifestyle opportunities for their families aboard (International Labor Office of the Director-General, 2008). In some countries jobs simply do not exist for a great deal of the population. In other instances, the income gap between sending and receiving countries is great enough to warrant a move.

Civil strife /war/ political and religious persecution; some migrants are impelled to cross national borders by war or persecution at home. These immigrants may be considered refugees or asylum seekers in receiving countries. According to the next put forth by the convention, a refugee is “someone who is unable or unwilling to return to their country of origin owing to a wee-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion”.

Environmental problems; environmental problems and natural disasters often cause the loss of money, homes, and jobs [4].

Consequence of migration

Migration may impact on development in various and complex way. Migration affects a migrant`s home country in different directions; in particular, shocks related for migrate processes include in labor supply as well as changes in productivity. Migration process includes endogenous behavior or policy responses as sending countries affect labor resources availability and productivity. Consequence of migration viewed from two directions. On one hand causes urbanization, unemployment, income inequality, ecological stress and population mal-distribution whereas on the other hand migration is necessary part of economic growth, equilibrating tendencies, facilitating industrialization, improving income distribution, and introducing technological change in agriculture, generalize that migration is the human right ensuring choosing ones destination to improve welfare and economic benefit [8].

At its best, migration can be a rewarding experience that is made in the interest of the house hold welfare, but in most cases moving to another countries and being separated from ones immediate family takes place at considerable emotional cost. Especially temporary circular migration increases the risk for family breakdown, fragmentation of social network and psycho social stress [7]. The emotional impact is not just limited to the migrant themselves, but also to the family cannot afford to emigrate together, they emigrate one member at a time resulting in eroded family structure and relationships (Ibid).

Advantage of migration

Brain drain however has some beneficial effects too. The sending countries benefit from the emigrant remittances. Farther same of the professionals and other skilled personnel may return home with better knowledge and experience which could contribute to national development [9]. In countries like India, though brain drain has caused shortage of certain categories of personnel, many doctors, engineers, and other skilled personnel find it difficult to find a suitable job. The substantial increases in the seats courses, like medical science, engineering, etc are increases in the supply of such human resources at rates faster than their absorption in the employment sector. Hence, it would be prudent for the government to device policies that would facilitate the better utilization of, human resources for natural development. Measures should also be taken to ensure the emigrant will pay the nation the public expenditure incurred for his education and will make same farther contribution (Ibid).

Apart from monetary factors, discouragement and disillusion in the professional field are also responsible for brain drain. As the UNESCO succinctly point out brain drain or the migration of educated and talented people, is part of the wider issue of development and differences in levels of development between countries. For this reason, brain drain cannot be treated realistically as a subject on its own. The means of responding to the problem are for the large part associated with aspects of national activities of which immigration is by no means always the first concern education planning, human resources assessment, bringing about the conditions conductive to creative scientific work or even ensuring a favorable social and political climate (Ibid).

Migration in ethiopia

Ethiopia is one of the countries with large number of migrants in North America, Europe, and the Middle East. According to Tefer and Beruk, by the end of 2005, more than one million Ethiopians migrated to the rest of the world. Looking for better education, employment opportunities, and political stabilities are considered major causes for migration. Political migration was intensified in Ethiopia during 1970- 1990 due to political instability at the time.

Although the stock of migration is decreasing since 1990, migration is still important and a hot issue in the current day Ethiopia. According to the population and housing census conducted in 2007, Ethiopia’s population grew by about 2 million people. At the same time, close to 120 thousands Ethiopian left their country very year.

Political and economic reasons accounted for the increase of Ethiopian migrants since the 1970s. But, these are by no means those only reasons. According to Abye, some migrants come from a well to do family who can afford the travel and living expenses aboard [10]. Those who are facing hard ship at home are not those who migrants because the poor cannot afford to travel. Hence, it can be argued that although the initial reason of migration is political instability, the recent migration trend can be accounted for by the desire to acquire Western culture and enjoy better standard of living. This, however, does not include those who migrant to the Middle East whose case is mostly economic.

Methodology of the Study

Research area and nature of the study

This research paper was conducted in Western zone of Tigray region, in wereda Tsegede at three preparatory schools and the nature of the research is primarily quantitative and in some way qualitative with descriptive type of research design.

Data sources

To attain the aim of this study, both primary and secondary data sources were used. Primary data sources; the primary data sources to the study were students and teachers from three preparatory schools of wereda Tsegede and those who return home from migration (immigrants). Secondary data sources; the main sources for secondary data were related literatures articles, journals, reports of the office and documents [11].

Sample size and sampling techniques

The total population of this research paper was all students and teachers of preparatory schools which currently exist in three schools in Tsegede wereda and are 348 and 28 in number respectively. Out of the total population 348 (Male=206 and Female=142), from these 102 students and 8 teachers were taken using sample random sampling method, especially the lottery method. This sampling method was selected since it avoids biasness and errors of sampling. Besides, five individuals from the migrants were included as sample respondents purposively.

Methods of data collection

The instruments used to gather data from the sample respondents were questionnaire and interview. The questionnaires contained both close and opened ended formats and were prepare for students and teacher respondents. This tool was selected because it helps to gather data with minimum cost faster than any other tool. In addition to this, interview wade made with five respondents. This is because, it helps to get some facts related to the issue under the study in a more clear way.

Methods of data analysis

The researcher had used both qualitative and quantitative methods of data analyze to analyze the data that was collected from different tools. Data from the questionnaire was analyzed quantitatively using tables, and percentages and data from interview was analyzed through qualitative method in terms of description the fact findings.

Analysis and Interpretation of Data

This chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation of data collected from different respondents through questionnaire, and interview.

For the study, 8 questionnaires were distributed to all the selected teachers and students from the school. The responses are arranged in two ways. The close ended questions are arranged in table forms. Under each table, analysis and interpretation were made. The open ended and interview questions are analyzed and interpreted using qualitative methods by bringing similar ideas together.

Characteristics of respondents

In this sub topic the researcher tried to list overall characteristics of the selected respondents like sex, age educational qualification and work experiences of the respondents who participate in the questionnaire. The characteristics of the respondents (their demographic) are listed under here in table form (Table 1).

No Items Respondents
Students Teachers
No % No %
1 Sex
• Male 62 60.8 6 75
• Female 40 39.2 2 25
Total 102 100 8 100
2 Age 11-12 years __ __ __ __
• 13-14 years 12 11.8 __ __
• 15-20 years 38 37.2 __ __
• 21-30 years 47 46.1 7 87.50%
• 30-40 years 5 4.9 1 12.50%
• Above 40 years __ __ __ __
Total 102 100 8 100%
3 Grade eleven and grade twelve 102 100 __ __
• Diploma __ __ __ __
• Degree __ __ 8 100%
Total 102 100 8 100%
4 Work experiences of teachers
• 1-10 years __ __ 5 62.5
• 11-20 years __ __ 3 37.5
• 21-30 years __ __ __ __
• Above 30 years __ __ __ __
Total __ __ 8 100

Table 1: Personal information of respondents.

As it can be seen in the above Table 1, item 1, regarding the student respondents, 62 (60.8%) of them are male and 40 (39.2%) are female respondents and from the teacher respondents, 75% are male and the rest 25% are females.

Regarding the age of respondents 12 (11.5%) of them are found at the age of 13-14 years and the rest 38 (37.2%) are found 15-20 years. 47 (46.1%) from the total respondents are also found at the age between 21-30 and the rest are found 31-40years.

Concerning the age of teacher respondents, 3 (17.6%) from the total respondents are found in the age range of 21-30 years. 11 (64.7%) respondents found in the age of between 30-40 years and the rest 3 (17.6%) are above 40 years.

Regarding the educational status of the selected respondents, all the student respondents are grade eleven and twelve students. From the teacher respondents, all are degree holders.

In case of the work experience of the teacher respondents, 5 (62.5%) respondents have 1-10 years of work experience, 3 (37.5%) are having work experiences of 11-20years.

Analyzing questionnaires

This sub section deals with the presenting analyzing and interpreting of the data gathered by questionnaire from the respondents (Table 2).

No Items Alternatives Respondents
Students Teachers
NO % No %
1 Do you have any information about migration? Yes 66 64.7 8 100
No 36 35.3 __ __
Total 102 100 8 100

Table 2: Respondents know-how on migration.

As we can see from Table 2 in the above, 64.7% of the student respondents said that Yes, but the rest 33.3% student respondent said No. concerning the teacher respondents all of them said that Yes. This shows that the majority of the respondents have enough information on migration. According to most of respondents, there people especially adults who migrate to aboard particularly to Saudi Arabia (Table 3).

No Items Alternatives Respondents
Students Teachers
NO % No %
1 Have you ever been migrated outside your country? Yes 18 17.6 __ __
No 84 82.3 __ __
Total 102 100 __ __
2 If your answer is Yes, in what job did you participate before your migration? Government __ __ __ __
In my own job __ __ __ __
Labor force 18 18 __ __
If other __ __ __ __
total 18 18 __ __
3 Your monthly income before your migration? Below 100 Birr 16 88.9 __ __
101-200 Birr 2 11.1 __ __
201-400 Birr __ __ __ __
More than 400 __ __ __ __
Total 18 100 __ __

Table 3: Number of migrants.

As it was seen from the above table, from total student respondents 84 (82.3%) have replied that they have never been migrated to other countries. But 18 (17.6%) are migrated to Saudi Arab. In connection to this as the data from the wereda office showed, 231 adults migrate per a years in average.

What we can conclude that there is high rate of migration of adults in the wereda.

With regard to item 2 of the same table, all of the respondents were worked on labor force before their migration to aboard. In item 3, almost all (88.9%) of the respondents were earned below 100 Birr per a month.

So working on labor force works and shortage of monthly income can be the determinant factors for their migration (Table 4).

No Items Alternatives Respondents
Students Teachers
NO % No %
1 What do you think the causes for migration were? Absence of work 8 7.8 __ __
Low income 12 11.7 __ __
Lack of land to plough 9 8.8 __ __
Unsuitable social life __ __ __ __
All 73 71.6 8 100
Other(if) __ __ __ __
Total 102 100 8 100

Table 4: Cause of migration.

As it was indicated in Table 4 of the above, the majority who account 71.6% from the total student respondents replied that the main course for migration of adults in the area under the study are absence of work, low income, lack of land for agriculture. Other who constitute 7.8%, 11.77 and 8.8% from the student respondents responded that absence of work, low income and lack of land respectively are the causes of migration and all of the teacher respondents replied that all what are mentioned earlier. In addition to these, the respondents added that to be rich in short period of time, lack of awareness on the causes of migration, lack of good word work opportunities and the like are the main cause of migration in the study area. In connection with this, research finding indicated that lack of prospects for career advancement, poverty and low income, high unemployment rates, persecution and poor human rights, internal conflict and war, natural disaster, climate change and famine are the main push factors. Other pushes factors include primitive conditions, natural disasters, poor medical care, as well as slavery and political fear. Push factors come in many forms. Sometimes these factors leave people with no choice but to leave their country of origin.

So what someone can infer from this idea is that, the main determinants factors to adults in Tsegede wereda are more or less economic problems like low income, absence of good and valuable work, shortage of land that can be ploughed, the desire to get rich in short period of time, and the experiences they observe from their parents, and neighbors that they get rich from migration (Table 5).

No Items Alternatives Respondents
Students Teachers
NO % No %
1 What do you think the negative impact of migration? Social isolation 13 12.7 __ __
Health problem 3 2.9 __ __
Economic problem 11 10.7 __ __
Psychological problem 7 6.8 __ __
Death 8 7.8 8 100
All 60 58.8 8 100
Total 102 100 8 100

Table 5: Impacts of migration.

As it stated in the table above, most of the student respondents replied that social isolation, health problem, economic problem, psychological problem and death are the impacts of migration. On the other hand, all of the teacher respondents replied the same response as their students. In addition to these, the respondents said that loss of productive citizen, the adult one, toss of very qualified person what we call brain drain, loss of cultural belies and traditions. Moreover migration leads to be illiterate instead of being educated. It lowered the self-esteem and confidence of those who migrate in every aspects of the community participation. With regard to the consequences of migration, scholar indicted that migration process includes endogenous behavior or policy response as sending countries affect labor resources availability and productivity. Consequences of migration viewed from two directions. On one hand causes urbanization, unemployment, income inequality, ecological stress and population mal-distribution [8]. At its best, migration can be a rewarding experience that is made in the interest of the house hold welfare, but in most cases moving to another countries and being separated from ones immediate family takes place at considerable emotional cost. Especially temporary circular migration increases the risk for family breakdown, fragmentation of social network and psycho social stress [7]. The emotional impact is not just limited to the migrant themselves, but also to the family left behind. Especially in poorer households where the whole family cannot afford to emigrate together, they emigrate one member at a time resulting in eroded family structure and relationships (Ibid).

From the above idea, we can understand that the impact of migration is very wider it ranges from the personal up to the family. People loss their children because of death at the migration journey, they loss their identities, deny their human right, they became infected by different diseases, loss of educated people and the like (Table 6).

No Items Alternatives Respondents
Students Teachers
NO % No %
1 Do you think migration has an advantage? If your answer is Yes, how? Yes 78 76.5 8 100
No 24 23.5 __ __
Total 102 100 8 100

Table 6: Advantage of migration.

Regarding the advantage of migration, all of the teacher respondents and most of the student respondents said yes. But 24 (23.5%) out of the total student respondents replied migration have no an advantage. As most of the respondents replied it, migration can have an advantage. When they justify this, through migration, you can avoid poverty; can help your family, can help the nation by currency exchange and the like. In line with this researches indicated that brain drain however has some beneficial effects too. The sending counties benefit from the emigrant remittances. Farther same of the professional and other skilled personnel may return home with better knowledge and experience which could contribute to national development (Table 7) [9].

No Items Alternatives Respondents
Students Teachers
NO % No %
1 What kind of migration do you apply in your town mostly? Illegal 90 88.24 8 100
Legal 12 11.76 __ __
Total 102 100 8 100

Table 7: Forms of migration.

As the above table shows, 90 (88.2%) of the respondents responded that there is illegal way of migration in their local areas and the rest 12 (11.76%) of the respondents said there is legal way of migration. In addition to this, 8 (100%) of the teacher respondents replied, as there is illegal way of migration in their surrounding or town. Therefore, we can understand that, there is illegal way of migration in Tsegede wereda which suffers a lot of individuals.

With regard to the role of the government to reduce migration in the area, almost all of the respondents have similar idea. They said that the government should teach its citizen on the impact of migration, it should have to create a behavioral change through awareness creation programs, there should be good work opportunity for the adults that satisfy its hunger of economy, it should support financial for those who have nothing and send the citizen by legal forms. Moreover, the people should also say no to migration.

Analyses of data which was gathered from interview

An interview was made with five returned migrants in order to strengthen the data gathered from questionnaire. Accordingly five questions were raised to them. The first question raised was do you have any information about the cause of migration? Or why do people especially the youth migrate to Arab countries?

As interview was made with the concerned body, they said there are various causes for migration of individuals from their mother land to other countries especially to Arab countries. To get money, to be rich, to have better life etc. are the factors that pulls individuals from their home land. On the other hand low income level relative to consumption, poor life condition poor living standards are the pushing factors for individuals.

What do you think are the social, economic, cultural and psychological impacts of migration? For this question the interviewee said that migration has social, cultural, economic and psychological impacts. Social impact means it results in social isolation. That is since the migrants are new for the place which they are going, they live isolated from their family or former society up until they can to speak the language of that place they reach in. economically, there would loss of money if they return out of tasks. At this time they lost more money especially transportation cost for outgoing and in going. Psychologically, migration results feeling as the migrated individuals faces such suffer, pain and even loss of their life it results in psychological feeling for the mass as it has blood relation.

Since migration has the above listed impacts, the government supports for the returned migrants who migrates illegally starting from providing free transportation service by taking from that evil condition to reach their home up to giving money which help them to engage in different activity that makes them productive and successful.

What kind of solution do you think to stop migration? There are a number of solutions to stop migration following its negative impacts. Giving advice to the people how much migration is dangerous, starting from the health of individual level up to the national level (i.e. decreasing of the economy of that country as the productive work forces are migrated).

Conclusion and Recommendation

This chapter focuses on the conclusion based on the finding and recommending some possible suggestions.

Conclusion

The study conducted in Tsegede wereda found in the western zone of Tigray having the objective of assessing the determinants of youth migration in the migration wereda. To deal with the study, questionnaires and interviews data gathering instruments were applied to collect data from the primary. The collected data were presented, analyzed and interpreted through both qualitative and quantitative methods of data analyzing. The data are presented and discussed in tabulations using numbers and percentages beside to the description of finding from the interview. Based on the analysis discussions made in chapter four the following conclusions are drowned.

1. Most of the adults in the study area have good knowledge on migration simple but they do not have enough knowledge on the overall impacts of migration. This is to mean that have no enough knowledge on migration.

2. According to the data, the most frequently migrated part of the society are the adults, the most reproductive one.

3. In the area under the study the adults are migrating because of different reasons like shortage of income, absence of good work opportunity, lack of land to plough to be a modern farmer, the desire to be rich in a short period of time because of some people get rich with such kind of opportunities, and lack of awareness on the social, political, economic and academic and psychological consequences of migration. The adults only show what is there in terms of money but not consider what is there in relation to the above mentioned problems.

The analysis also realizes the main determinants factors for adults’ migration are better opportunity at destination areas encouragement by the experience of previous migrants relative and friends who have been able to secure improved livelihood in receiving countries and able to send remittance to families. Migrants also motivated by noneconomic factors like need for modern life, administrative and security issues.

The adults are migrating to aboard illegally through the help of illegal brokers and they face tremendous problems like beating, paralyzed migrants physically, sexual harassment, death confiscation money and the like. The researchers also investigate the socio-economic and political consequence of migration. Economically, migration has both positive and negative impacts on the economy of the country. Migrants send remittance to their families and reduce the level of poverty of their families, but there is also losing of capable and productive youth adults that are necessary for the wellbeing of the country.

Recommendations

Considering the above conclusions, the researcher has forwarded the following recommendations.

There should be a sanction on migration by the government official on the condition of mass adult migration. Because, migration consume the young adult and productive capabilities full adults as well as educated citizens migration has its own advantage.

Government official of that particular community should also give special training expiring on job innovation, specialization and equal access for adults engaged in local and domestic employment.

The wereda should also provide special awareness to the adults about the challenges and consequences of migration both at destination and during the time of journeys.

The government official of the wereda should eliminate the push factors in the kebelle by creating high employment opportunity, wage increments and advancement of other workers benefits for the adults labor force.

Migrants should identify very well about their destination and the route ways of migration before starting journey in order to reduce the challenges and problems of migration.

Even though it is advisable not to migrate from the nation, migrants should follow the legal process of migration through legal government or private employees and employ agency in order to control the illegal employees from brokers.

With regarding to the minimizing solutions, the government should teach its citizen on the impact of migration, it should have to create a behavioral change through awareness creation programs, there should be good work opportunity for the adults that satisfy its hunger of economy, it should support financially for those who have nothing and send the citizen by legal forms. Moreover, the people should also say no to migration.

References

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