alexa Productivity Improvement by Work Study Technique: A Case on Leather Products Industry of Bangladesh | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2169-0316
Industrial Engineering & Management
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Productivity Improvement by Work Study Technique: A Case on Leather Products Industry of Bangladesh

Md. Abdul Moktadir1*, Sobur Ahmed2, Fatema-Tuj-Zohra1 and Razia Sultana2

1Department of Leather Products Engineering, Institute of Leather Engineering and Technology, University of Dhaka

2Department of Leather Engineering, Institute of Leather Engineering and Technology, University of Dhaka

*Corresponding Author:
Md. Moktadir MA
Department of Industrial & Production Engineering
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh
Tel: 8801821719283
E-mail: moktadir.buet.aem@gmail.com

Received Date: February 01, 2017; Accepted Date: February 11, 2017; Published Date: February 16, 2017

Citation: Moktadir MA, Ahmed S, Fatema-Tuj-Zohra, Sultana R (2017) Productivity Improvement by Work Study Technique: A Case on Leather Products Industry of Bangladesh. Ind Eng Manage 6:207. doi:10.4172/2169-0316.1000207

Copyright: © 2017 Moktadir MA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Industrial Engineering & Management

Abstract

In Bangladesh, leather and leather products sector plays a vital role for economy development. Productivity improvement can be helped to enrich profit of a leather products industry by minimizing excess work and developing new method for particular operation. Now a day, productivity improvement is a popular topic for any kinds of industry. So that improving productivity is one of the main concerns of leather products industries. Work study is most important tools that can help to increase productivity in leather products industry. Hence, this study helps to identify the bottleneck and suggest appropriate system to improve productivity. For this purpose, method study has been carried out by applying questioning techniques concept where recording and critical analysis of all related information has been performed in particular production line. As a result considerable amount of work content is reduced in the new improved method. Then time study has been taken by stopwatch and determined the basic time for all operation sequences and the capacity of each workstation per day has been calculated. By applying method study and work measurement in the industry at production line-Surma for ladies bag, productivity has been improved by 12.71%.

Keywords

Production; Productivity improvement; Work study; Method study; Work measurement; Leather products; Application in assembly line

Introduction

In Bangladesh, Leather and leather products sector plays a significant role for the economic development of the country. The industry has contributed to export earnings, foreign exchange earnings, employment creation, poverty alleviation and the empowerment of women. Bangladesh earned $1.16 billion from the leather sector in the year of 2015-16, which was the second highest contributor to national exports after RMG. To sustain the positive growth, it is necessary to ensure the proper utilization of resources. Financial growth of any industry largely depends on minimizing excess work and productivity improvement. To minimize excess work and improving productivity at first we should realize the production term. Production is any process or procedure developed to transfer a set of input into a specified set of output in proper quality and quantity thus achieving the objectives of an industry. Production helps to create products by the transformation of raw materials [1]. The production system of leather products industry can be shown by the following diagram (Figure 1).

industrial-engineering-management-production-system

Figure 1: Production system (Jain and Aggarwal, [1]).

Productivity is the ratio between output of wealth and the input of resources used in the process of production [2]. Productivity measurement turns a comparison of outputs to inputs normally by calculation of a productivity index [2,3].

Equation (1)

Productivity can be used to measure the extent to which a certain output can be extracted from a given input [4]. Productivity measurement is the important for any kinds of industry. Increasing productivity is one of the major issues for enhancing more profit from same kinds of resources. Productivity improvement helps to satisfy customer and reduce time and cost to develop, produce and deliver products [5]. Productivity includes effective relationship to performance measure for method utilization, method output, product prices, and work in process inventory levels and on time delivery [6]. Productivity is considered to be a growth of profit [7].

Productivity improvement can be done by sorting of elimination, repairing of ineffective process, simplifying the method, optimizing the system, reducing variation, maximizing turnout up quality or responsiveness and reducing set-up time. Productivity can be also achieved by increasing the value-added content of products [8], or by decreasing the unit cost of production or decreasing the work content of the production, or line balancing of the production line or by a combination of all [3,9,10]. Productivity improvement is the continuous improvement process of any types of activities [3,11]. In this study, productivity improvement gained through reducing work content by implementing new methods in assembly line of a specific leather product (i.e. leather ladies Bag).

To the best of our knowledge there are no studies on how to apply work study technique in leather products industry for productivity improvement although one study fund in shoe manufacturing industry [12]. Productivity improvement through work study technique is necessary for increasing profit as well as proper utilization of labor of an industry [6]. Leather products industry is one of the most significant exports earning industry of Bangladesh. This paper helps to implementing work study technique in assembly line of leather products industry for increasing productivity. The novel contribution of this paper is to find out the method for improvement of productivity in leather products industry.

Materials and Methods

Literature review of work study

Work study is the investigation process, by means of a consistent system of the work done in a industry, in order to attain the best possible use of the men, machines, materials, available in the building at present [13].

Method study [14] and Work Measurement is the two major segment of work study [1]. Figure 2 helps to understand the two basic parts of work study method. Work study then aims at examining the method associate activity is being disbursed, simplifying or modifying the tactic of operation to unnecessary work or the wasteful use of resources and fixing a time commonplace for plying the activity [15]. The relation between productivity and work study so evident. To appriciate how work study helps to reduce costs and reduce the time of certain activity, it is necessary to examin more closely what the time consists of [4,16]. It is used to systematically study and improve human working condition by considering all factors that affect the working efficiency and conditions. Work study helps to systematically reduce the work content in an assembly line.

industrial-engineering-management-the-diagram-productivity

Figure 2: The diagram shows how work study helps in increasing productivity (Jain and Aggarwal, [1]).

This method is subdivided into two categories which are method study; used to modify method or develop new method and work measurement which is basically time study of each operation with the help of stopwatch [17].

The application of method study and work measurement is widely used tools in manufacturing industry as well as different fields [18-22]. Literature reveals that in different sector like health sector this method is also used [23,24] shows the improvement of the bottleneck process in a lamp assembly line by applying the work study method, ECLS, and line balancing. The result shows the improvement for both product and operator. The reduction in production time resulted in better productivity in system [25,26] studied the manufacturing process in the automobile industry both before and after the improvement had been made, by using an operation process chart. In this research, we use the work study method for productivity improvement in particular assembly line by selecting a products in leather products industry with the help of management personnel. We try to balancing line and reduction of work content by critical analysis and time study [27]. For research work, the particular assembly line is selected for observing each operation with time study for productivity improvement.

The basic steps of work study are exposed by Figure 3. We use this conceptual chart for analysis particular production line with selecting particular products. For this research purpose, we select a Leather ladies bag for critical analysis and time study. After collecting observes time of each operation, we compute the standard time for each operation including rating and two types of allowance.

industrial-engineering-management-co-ordination-procedure

Figure 3: Co-ordination Procedure for Work Study for Higher Productivity (Jain and Aggarwal, [1]).

Research methodology

Step by step procedure is the most important for improving productivity through work study method to reduce work content to particular products .Here is given key steps of this case study. We try to develop a conceptual framework for our work. This frame helped to accomplish our research work in systematic way.

In this study, at first we selected a leather products industry with specific products. After that we selected a specific production line for accomplishing our study. We observed all the particular operations with the help of stopwatch. After observing all the operations, identified the existing problem by critical questioning technique. After identifying problems, we developed new method or process [28] for particular products. When our proposed method applied to this particular assembly line, the productivity has been improved. Our contributed research objectives are:

1. Analyze the production system with the help of work study technique for productivity improvement.

2. Identify the existing problem in a particular production line and develop new system with the help of critical analysis.

Solution Methodology

In this research, we used some terminology for research purpose. Here is given that terminology for analyzing data.

Observe time

The time taken to perform an operation or combination of operations obtained by means of direct measurement [29].

Selected time

The time chosen as being representative of a group of times for an operations or group of work by calculating mean, median or mode.

Rating

Rating is the assessment of the worker’s performance rate of working relative to the observer’s concept of the rate corresponding to standard pace. The commonly used rating scale in use is shown in Table 1 [16].

Rating scale Description
0 No Activity
50 Very slow, clumsy, fumbling movements, operative appear half-asleep, with no interest in the job
75 Steady, deliberate, unhurried performance, as of a worker not on Piecework but under proper supervision, looks slow, but time not being intentionally wasted while under observation
100 Brisk. Business-like performance, as of an average qualified worker on piecework, necessary standard quality and accuracy standard rate achieved with confidence
125 Very fast, operative exhibits a high degree of assurance, dexterity and co-ordination of movement, well above that of an average works
150 Exceptionally fast, requires intense effort and concentration and is us-likely to be kept up for long periods, a performance achieved only by a few outstanding workers

Table 1: Rating scale (Kanawaty, [16]).

Basic time

Basic time is the irreducible minimum time theoretically required to produce one unit of output. The time for carrying out an element of work at standard rating [16].

Equation (2)

Standard time

Standard time is the total time in which a job should be completed at standard performance [16].

Standard Time = BasicTime + Allowances (3)

For allowances, we consider 15% relaxation allowances and 3% contingency allowances.

Relaxation allowances

Relaxation allowance is an addition to the basic time intended to improve the worker with the opportunity to recover from the physiological and psychological effects of carrying out a specified operation and to allow attention to personal needs. The amount of allowance depends on the nature of the work. Generally Relaxation allowance is 15% of basic time, has been added to calculate standard time from basic time [30].

Contingency allowances

A contingency allowance is a very small amount of time that may be included in a standard time for time study. In this study, we consider 3% contingency allowance of basic time to calculate standard time [30].

Equation (4)

Equation (5)

Equation (6)

Equation (7)

A Real Case Study

Data collection and calculations

For practical implementation of our research framework, we select Picard Bangladesh Ltd for real life implementation. Picard Bangladesh Ltd. is a Bangladesh-Germany joint venture leather products industry which produces quality products. Picard Bangladesh Ltd. is a one of the big leather products industry of Bangladesh which produces lots of small and large leather goods like wallet, card case, ladies bag, ladies purse, travel bag, and verities types of products. For this research work we select a ladies bag for observing each operation along with time study. After observing all the operations along with time study, we fund 60 operations for manufacturing of selected ladies bag. There are about 60 operations for our research products. We compute observe time for all of these existing operations. The existing sequential operations are shown in Table 2 and Picture 1.

Sl No. Name of the operations Observed times in centiminutes Selected Time Rating Basic Time Standard Time Manual or m/c Man power Capacity/Day@ 100% efficiency
1 2 3 4 5
1 Cutting all leather 566 560 490 545 550 542 80 434 513 M/c 1 94
2 Cutting all PVC, lining, Reinforcement 273 262 279 269 275 271 80 217 256 M/c 3 563
3. Inspection and Numbering 108 118 120 111 115 114 80 91 107 Manual 2 897
4 Spitting leather 33 37 34 29 35 34 80 27 32 M/c 1 1500
5 Skiving leather, rabus and PVC 240 250 235 246 238 242 85 206 243 M/c 3 592
6 Sewing back part Face to face 40 37 32 42 35 37 80 30 35 M/c 1 1371
7 Double way tap attaching to back joining and hammering 105 110 100 120 118 111 85 94 110 Manual 2 873
8 Double stitching to back part 22 23 27 19 25 23 80 18 21 M/c 1 2286
9 Gluing on back leather and foam and back top folding 8 mm from the edge by both way tape 230 221 225 235 218 225 80 180 212 Manual 2 453
10 Gluing on back trim part and back part rabus and folding top and below 8 mm from edge 208 230 220 227 223 223 80 178 210 Manual 2 457
11 Setting back and back trim part by Both way tape attach on back zipper#5 part leather and attach zipper 188 192 180 178 185 185 85 157 185 Manual 2 519
12 Back zipper #5 lining attach with back and back trim part by both way tape 45 40 42 44 39 42 80 34 40 Manual 1 1200
13 Back zipper #5 lining stiching by flat bed sewing m/c 112 101 99 114 108 107 85 91 107 M/c 1 449
14 Marking Logo position and Logo fitting on Front leather and tape attach 129 126 123 139 138 131 85 111 131 Manual 2 733
15 Gluing on front Leather and rabus and foam and folding top 8 mm from edge 259 275 250 265 269 263 85 224 264 Manual 4 727
16 Marking magnet position on inner front trimming part and fixing 58 65 60 67 60 62 85 53 63 Manual 2 1524
17 Gluing On front inner trimming part and PVC and folding 8 mm from edge 177 170 167 188 185 177 80 142 168 Manual 3 857
18 Both way tape attach on front inner trimming part and lining attaching 67 52 57 64 61 60 85 51 60 Manual 2 1600
19 front inner trimming part and lining stiching 21 18 23 26 20 22 85 19 22 M/c 1 2182
20 Setting front and inner trimming part by both way tape 122 115 120 119 117 119 85 101 119 Manual 2 807
21 Front and inner trimming part sewing 2.5 mm from top edge 89 93 97 85 95 92 80 74 87 M/c 1 552
22 Marking magnet position on inner Back trimming part and fixing 65 69 67 70 61 67 85 57 67 Manual 2 1433
23 Gluing on back inner trim part and PVC and folding 8 mm from edge 167 156 163 160 159 161 80 129 152 Manual 1 315
24 Both way tape attach on Back inner trimming part and lining attaching 73 67 69 71 77 72 85 61 72 Manual 2 1333
25 Back inner trimming part and lining sewing 18 21 19 24 20 21 80 17 20 M/c 1 2400
26 Setting back and inner trimming part by both way tape 132 135 137 129 142 135 85 115 135 Manual 2 711
27 Back and inner trimming part sewing 2.5 mm from edge 76 82 87 79 84 82 80 66 77 M/c 1 623
28 Gluing on gusset and EVA and top folding 211 201 209 200 204 205 75 154 182 Manual 2 527
29 Gluing on loop and gusset and zipper with help of mark and attach loop and zipper on gusset and attach lining 240 257 249 253 263 252 80 202 238 Manual 3 605
30 loop and gusset and zipper stiching 45 53 41 56 49 49 75 37 44 M/c 1 1091
31 Preparation of piping 240 244 256 252 260 250 80 200 236 M/c 2 407
32 Both way tape attach on middle-1 and lining attaching 69 52 57 64 54 59 85 50 59 Manual 2 1627
33 middle-1 and lining stiching 23 20 26 25 27 24 85 20 24 M/c 1 2000
34 Marking magnet position on front middle-1 and fitting magnet 95 87 92 89 91 91 85 77 91 Manual 2 1055
35 Both way tape attach on middle-2 leather and lining attaching 76 67 79 72 78 74 80 59 70 Manual 1 686
36 middle-2 leather and lining stiching 24 21 27 19 22 23 85 20 24 M/c 1 2000
37 Marking magnet position and fitting magnet 100 93 91 87 94 93 85 79 93 Manual 2 1032
38 Piping stiching with front part with middle-1 and back part with middle-2 320 322 329 334 337 329 75 247 291 M/c 1 165
39 Handy pocket attaching with middle-1 by adhesive with help of marking 120 112 109 117 125 117 75 88 104 Manual 2 923
40 Handy pocket stiching with middle-1 89 79 75 82 71 79 80 63 74 M/c 1 649
41 Middle zipper attaching with middle with middle-2 lining 257 247 243 251 254 250 80 200 236 Manual 2 407
42 Middle zipper and middle-2 lining stiching 105 98 108 112 102 105 75 79 93 M/c 1 516
43 Middle-2 lining attaching with middle-2 leather by false stich 93 91 87 86 83 88 80 70 83 M/c 1 578
44 Middle-2 lining and middle-2 leather stiching 78 71 82 74 79 77 85 65 77 M/c 1 623
45 Gluing on bottom part and PVC and lining attaching on bottom part 149 156 148 158 150 152 85 129 152 manual 2 632
46 Piping stiching with bottom part leather 107 113 99 114 100 107 75 80 94 M/c 1 511
47 Gusset stiching with front and back part 425 437 439 420 423 429 80 343 405 M/c 1 119
48 Bottom stiching with upper 200 192 188 194 199 195 80 156 184 M/c 1 261
49 Belt joining by stiching 90 87 82 86 89 87 85 74 87 M/c 1 552
50 Adhesive apply on leather and hamaring 128 123 131 139 129 130 85 111 131 Manual 2 733
51 Gluing on full belt and stiching by die fixed sewing m/c 211 199 204 212 209 207 85 176 208 M/c 2 462
52 Belt attaching on bag by sewing 80 84 77 83 79 81 80 65 77 M/c 1 623
53 Binding on the leather joining edge by die fitting sewing m/c 104 112 107 102 99 105 85 89 105 M/c 1 457
54 Gluing on full pullar and stiching by cnc m/c and embossing 110 119 124 115 120 118 85 100 118 M/c 3 1220
55 Puller attaching on bag 120 117 115 123 119 119 80 95 112 Manual 1 429
56 Edge coloring 59 54 51 49 57 54 75 41 48 Manual 1 1000
57 Thread burning and cleaning and polishing 389 361 379 357 385 374 80 299 353 Manual 3 408
58 Staffing 79 73 69 81 82 77 75 58 68 Manual 1 706
59 Final checking 120 127 118 131 128 125 80 100 118 Manual 1 407
60 Price tag attaching and packaging 233 227 220 229 240 230 80 184 217 Manual 1 221
Total   6787 8004   97  

Table 2: Existing operations for ladies bag in centiminutes.

industrial-engineering-management-different-view-sample-article

Picture 1: Different view of the sample article.

We observe five times for each operation for taking time for particular operations. After taking observe time, it converted to basic time with particular rating for each worker by using equation (2). After that we transferred this basic time with adding allowance to standard time by using equation (3). We consider two types of allowance for calculating standard time which is relaxation allowances and contingency allowances. We consider the 8 h working time for each worker.

The graphical representation of capacity of each station is shown in Figures 3-5.

industrial-engineering-management-conceptual-framework

Figure 4: Conceptual Framework of research.

industrial-engineering-management-graphical-computed

Figure 5: This graphical representation is computed by using Table 2. From this graph we observe the capacity of each operation very easily.

Proposed line

After studying all of those operations, we fund some problem which is improved during proposed method implication to our research work. We have done some critical operations for productivity improvement to these specific products. Table 3 shows the critical operations which is done during implementation our research framework.

Name of the critical operation Existing Line Proposed Line
Existing method Std. Time/piece Suggested method Stand. Time/piece
Gluing on back leather and foam and back top folding 8 mm from the edge Through gluing on leathe is generally done by brush. The using brush to apply adhesive need more time. 212 Due to small component we could use water based adhesive by spraying m/c. By using this types of method of applying adhesive is more quicker than existing method 170
Inspection and Numbering Inspection and numbering done in cutting. 107 Should be avoided it in cutting section 0
Gluing on back trim part and back part rabus and folding top and below 8 mm from edge Through gluing on leather is generally done by brush. The using brush to apply adhesive need more time. Due to curve of top need more time. 210 We could use spraying method to apply adhesive. For curve of top folding we could use quicker method to save time. 179
Gluing on front Leather and rabus and foam and folding top 8 mm from edge Through gluing on leather is generally done by brush. The using brush to apply adhesive need more time. 264 Due to small parts we could use spraying method to apply adhesive and if we use this method save time. 211
Gluing On front inner trimming part and PVC and folding 8 mm from edge To manufacture this article use brush to apply adhesive. This method need more time than spraying method. 168 To manufacture this article we could use spraying method to apply adhesive to save time. 123
Front and inner trimming part sewing 2.5 mm from top edge To attach front and inner top part generally use cylinder bad sewing m/c. Due to curve of top need more skilled worker and more time. 87 If we could use CNC m/c to stitch top curve due to small component and it save time to improve productivity. 44
Gluing on back inner trim part and PVC and folding 8 mm from edge To manufacture this article use brush to apply adhesive. This method need more time than spraying method. 152 To manufacture this article we could use spraying method to apply adhesive to save time. 113
Back and inner trimming part sewing 2.5 mm from edge To attach front and inner top part generally use cylinder bad sewing m/c. Due to curve of top need more skilled worker and more time. 77 If we could use CNC m/c to stitch top curve due to small component and it save time to improve productivity 44
Gluing on gusset and EVA and top folding To manufacture this article use brush to apply adhesive. This method need more time than spraying method. 182 To manufacture this article we could use spraying method to apply adhesive to save time. 151
Gluing on bottom part and lining attaching on bottom part To manufacture this article use brush to apply adhesive. This method need more time than spraying method. 152 To manufacture this article we could use sprying method to save time. 122
Edge coloring Here there is no raw edge but still the use edge coloring for manufacturing defect 48 Most be avoided this for this article due to there is no raw edge present here. --
Staffing To save the article they use paper which need more time then use poly bag use. 68 If we could use poly bag to shape the article. This will be time saver method for this article. 34

Table 3: Critical analysis of operation.

After line balancing of this product, we get higher productivity [31,32]. The calculation of proposed line balancing is shown in Table 4.

Sl. No Name o the Operation Sleeted Time Rating Basic Time Standard Time M/c/Manual Man Power Capacity/Day @ 100% efficiency Capacity/Day @ 85% efficiency
1 Cutting all leather 542 80 434 513 M/c 3 281 239
2 Cutting all PVC, lining, Reinforcement 271 80 217 256 M/c 3 563 479
3 Splitting and Skiving leather, rabus and PVC 276 85 253 275 M/c 4 698 593
4 Double way tap attaching to back joining and hammering 111 85 94 110 Manual 2 873 742
5 Sewing back part Face to face and Double stitching to back part 60 80 48 56 M/C 1 857 728
6 Gluing on back leather and foam and back top folding 8 mm from the edge 180 80 144 170 Manual 2 564 480
7 Gluing on back trim part and back part rabus and folding top and below 8 mm from edge 190 80 152 179 Manual 2 536 456
8 Setting back and back trim part by Both way tape attach on back zipper#5 part leather and attach zipper 120 85 102 120 Manual 2 800 680
9 Back zipper #5 lining attach with back and back trim part by both way tape 42 80 34 40 Manual 1 1200 1020
10 Back zipper #5 lining stiching by flat bed sewing m/c 107 85 91 107 M/c 1 449 382
11 Marking Logo position and Logo fitting on Front leather and tape attach 67 85 57 67 Manual 1 716 609
12 Gluing on Leather and rabus and foam and folding top 8 mm from edge 210 85 179 211 Manual 4 910 774
13 Marking magnet position on inner front trimming part and fixing and Marking magnet position on inner Back trimming part and fixing 129 85 110 130 Manual 2 738 627
14 Gluing On front inner trimming part and PVC and folding 8 mm from edge 130 80 104 123 Manual 3 1171 935
15 Both way tape attach on front inner trimming part and lining attaching 60 85 51 60 Manual 2 1600 1882
16 front inner trimming part and lining stiching 22 85 19 22 M/c 1 2182 1855
17 Setting front and inner trimming part by both way tape 119 85 101 119 Manual 3 1210 1029
18 front and inner trimming part sewing 2.5 mm from edge 46 80 37 44 M/c 1 1091 927
19 Gluing on back inner trim part and PVC and folding 8 mm from edge 120 80 96 113 Manual 2 850 723
20 Both way tape attach on Back inner trimming part and lining attaching 72 85 61 72 Manual 2 1333 1133
21 back inner trimming part and lining sewing 21 80 17 20 M/c 1 2400 2040
22 Setting back and inner trimming part by both way tape 135 85 115 135 Manual 2 711 604
23 back and inner trimming part sewing 2.5 mm from edge 46 80 37 44 M/c 1 1091 927
24 Gluing on gusset and eva and top folding 170 75 128 151 Manual 2 636 541
25 Gluing on loop and gusset and zipper with help of mark and attach loop and zipper on gusset and attaching lining 200 80 160 189 Manual 3 762 648
26 loop and gusset and zipper stiching 49 75 37 44 M/c 1 1091 927
27 Preparation of piping 240 80 192 227 M/c 3 634 539
28 Both way tape attach on middle-1 and lining attaching 59 85 50 59 Manual 1 814 692
29 middle-1 and lining stiching 24 85 20 24 M/c 1 2000 1700
30 Marking magnet position and fitting magnet 67 85 57 67 Manual 2 1433 1218
31 Both way tape attach on middle-2 leather and lining attaching 74 80 59 70 Manual 1 686 583
32 middle-2 leather and lining stiching 23 85 20 24 M/c 1 2000 1700
33 Marking magnet position and fitting magnet 67 85 57 67 Manual 2 1433 1218
34 Handy pocket attaching with middle-1 by adhesive with help of marking 117 75 88 104 Manual 2 923 785
35 Handy pocket stiching with middle-1 79 80 63 74 M/c 1 649 552
36 Middle zipper attaching with middle with middle-2 lining 210 80 168 198 Manual 2 485 412
37 Middle zipper and middle-2 lining stiching 105 75 79 93 M/c 1 516 439
38 Middle-2 lining attaching with middle-2 leather by false stich 88 80 70 83 M/c 1 578 491
39 Middle-2 lining and middle-2 leather stiching 77 85 65 77 M/c 1 623 530
40 Gluing on bottom part and lining attaching on bottom part 121 85 103 122 Manual 2 787 669
41 Piping stiching with bottom part leather and with front part with middle-1 and back part with middle-2 427 75 321 378 M/c 3 381 324
42 Gusset stiching with front and back part and Bottom stiching with upper 560 80 448 528 M/c 3 273 232
43 Belt joining by stiching 87 85 74 87 M/c 1 552 469
44 Adhesive apply on leather and joining and hamaring 130 85 111 131 Manual 2 733 623
45 Gluing on full belt and stiching by die fixed sewing m/c 207 85 176 208 M/c 2 462 393
46 Belt attaching on bag by sewing 81 80 65 77 M/c 1 623 530
47 Binding on the leather joining edge by die fitting sewing m/c 105 85 89 105 M/c 1 457 388
48 Gluing on full puller and stiching by CNC m/c and embossing 118 85 100 118 M/c 2 814 692
49 Puller attaching on bag 119 80 95 112 Manual 1 429 365
50 Edge coloring 54 75 41 48 Manual 1 1000 850
51 Thread burning and cleaning and final checking 425 80 340 401 Manual 4 479 407
52 Staffing 39 75 29 34 Manual 1 1412 1200
53 Price tag attaching and packaging 230 80 184 217 Manual 2 442 376
  Total       7103   97    

Table 4: Proposed balanced line for ladies bag (Time in Centiminutes)

The graphical representation of proposed balanced line is also shown in Figures 5 and 6.

industrial-engineering-management-graphical-proposed

Figure 6: Graphical representation of proposed balanced line: This graph is computed by using Table 4.

Results and Discussion

The present production of existing production line is 240 pieces -bag/day. The working hours for this company are 8hr. In this production line the total number of worker is 97. So, that according to equation (1) the average productivity of this production line is approximately 2.5 pieces of bag per day. In this production line, the available working time is 48000 cent minutes. So, that work content for per pieces of bag is 8004 cent minutes. Standard output at 100% efficiency is 582 pieces bag per day. After all, the efficiency calculation is computed by using equation (3) is 41.23%.

In this research, using proposed line that can increase productivity to 12.71% from previous existing line. In earlier the work content per piece was 80.04 minutes. After line balancing and critical analysis the work content was 71.03 minutes. So, that the work content reduced to 9.01 minutes after line balancing and critical method work. In this proposed line the standard output at 100% efficiency was 656 pieces bag per day. Input of this proposed line was 582 pieces bag per day. By using equation (6) the productivity improved to 12.71%.

Our proposed method helps to increase productivity to 12.71% with reduction of work content and line balancing.

Conclusions and Recommendation

Productivity improvement is an important issue in leather products industry. The profit earning of leather products industry largely depends on productivity improvement. This study shows the way of finding gap of production process and operations. By implementing work study and method study and established new effective process for particular operation, we have to able to increase productivity. Especially this study shows the improvement of productivity in assembly line [33] of leather products manufacturing industry. The line balancing is the key point to increase productivity to particular products. For the sake of limitation we could not apply this technique to all products. For reducing work content to improve productivity, Lean manufacturing concept [34,35] could be used for our work. This study shows the productivity improvement by reduction of work content and line balancing. Further research could be done by using combination of lean and work study technique.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 455
  • [From(publication date):
    February-2017 - Apr 25, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 410
  • PDF downloads :45
 
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

OMICS International Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version