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Journal of Traditional Medicine & Clinical Naturopathy
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Unani Murakkabat (Formulations): Need of Modification

Hifzul Kabir*
Department of Ilmul Advia, Faculty of Medicine, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi-62, India
Corresponding Author : Hifzul Kabir
Department of Ilmul Advia
Faculty of Medicine, Jamia Hamdard
New Delhi-62, India
Tel: 9811099160
E-mail: hifzulkabir@hotmail.com
Received February 21, 2014; Accepted March 26, 2014; Published March 28, 2014
Citation: Kabir H (2014) Unani Murakkabat (Formulations): Need of Modification. J Homeop Ayurv Med 3:146. doi: 10.4172/2167-1206.1000146
Copyright: © 2014 Kabir H. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Ilmul Advia (Pharmacology) is backbone of Unani System of Medicine. It includes evaluation of drugs (identification, cultivation, collection, storage) etc on one hand and action and uses on the other. It is much wider in relation to Pharmacognosy, Pharmacology and pharmacy of modern stream. It comprises Kulliyat Advia, Mufradat, Murakkabat, Saidla and Kushtasaazi. Murakkabat, Saidla and Kushtasaazi have wide field of work but very little is being done. Murakkabat (Compound formulations) need to be modified in respect to preparation and ingredients.
Ingredients: Certain preparations contain more than 40 or even 141 or more ingredients, it is very difficult to justify their presence and some drugs are not available so these should be excluded from the formulation. Some drugs are repeated in the name of other drug or with same phytochemical composition.
Preparation method of drugs: We should prepare drugs on standard parameters to compete the world. As in
preparation of Kushta, heat should be given in terms of temperature regulated by computer but still now we are doing in terms of weight of dung cake. Sherbet majoon and other preparation’s sugar must be replaced to sugar free, which will be safe to diabetic and other such patients.
Toxicity study: Kushta and other poisonous drugs should be evaluated for their toxicity study, so that their
indications, contraindication may be established. By describing these facts, it is need of time to evaluate the drugs on such parameters, that principles of Unani System should not be neglected.

Keywords
Unani; Murakkabat
Introduction
Unani System of Medicine passed through many stages, countries, cultures and people. It contains not only Egyptian, Arabic, Persian and Indian origin drugs but from about whole world. So mixture of drugs from different parts of world is available to Unani experts and it is duty of these experts to give best treatment through best drugs to masses. Ilmul Advia (Pharmacology) is an important wing of Unani system of Medicine. It is related to identification, action, and uses of Mufradat (single drugs) as well as Murakkabat (compound formulation). It includes Saidla (Pharmacy) which guides in proper way to prepare Murakkabat (compound formulation).
Scope
It has wide scope to study as well as research. As it includes evaluation identification, cultivation, collection, storage etc) of Mufradat (single drugs) and Murakkabat (compound formulation) on one hand and on the other hand their action and uses.
In relation to Pharmacognosy, Pharmacology and pharmacy of modern stream it is much wider and this single discipline comprises Kulliyat Advia (Principles of drugs), Mufradat (Single drugs), Morakkabat (Compound formulations) and Saidla (pharmacy).
Research and development
Unani system of medicine comprises certain wings and Ilmul Advia is one, which play pivot role in it. It is ancient system and work on this is being done very little. Razi a renowned Unani Scholar said: It is very dangerous that a clinician ignores its own opinion and follows only literary prescription and others ideas. He also said: life of an Person is not enough to know the efficacy and use of herbs. So it is appropriate to use such drugs, which are used earlier, the drugs not available or less available are better not to use them. It needs research work if we consider this matter seriously we can divide broadly in following research areas.
Identification of drugs
In Unani literature drugs are described in similarities. As a particular drug is described in term of other particular drugs/things, which was popular in those days but now that is unpopular and even untraceable. There is urgent requirement to describe these on currently accepted binomial name, synonymous, vernaculars, Mizaj (temperament) the part of plant used, for each parameter for each preparation and detailed instruction for agricultural production and collection condition harvesting and storage according to the each country’s good agricultural practices. Some drugs like Afsanteen (Artemisia absynthium) is either not found or difficult to find authentic drug in the market or other species are present, so we should replace it or genuine drug should be obtained, like this adulteration in Sudab (Ruta graveolance), Baobarang [1-3] (Embelia ribes), Banafshah (Viola odorata), Senna [3] (Cassia angustifolia, Cassia acutifolia), Biskhapra [2] (Trianthema portulastrum), Chiraita [1-3] (Swertia Chirata), Kasoos (Cuscuta reflexa from its adulterant Cuscuta chinensis) [4] must also be checked and properly identified. So authentic drug may be available and adulteration should be checked. A host of potential species are available for adulteration of crude and processed Phyllanthus emblica fruits. The adulterant may be phyllogenetically close or distinct (eg. dried fruit pieces of pumpkin) from Phyllanthus emblica [5]. Pueraria tuberosa, commonly known as Vidarikand in India, is an important plant used in traditional medicine. However, there are at least three other botanical entities traded under the same name, namely Ipomoea mauritiana, Adenia hondala and Cycas circinalis [6].
Action and uses
A lot of work is to be done in relation to action and uses, which should depend on the nature and level of the indication. The level of the evidence and the grading of recommendation must correspond to nature of illness to be treated or the nature of the physical or mental function to be treated or the nature of physical or mental function to be influenced and regulated. The drugs, which are used in Unani system, need again to be trialed and evaluated. It is said that Asgand Nagori [3,7] (Withania somnifera) found in a particular region i.e., Nagor, has better result.
Dose
The dose of drug is also to be modified; some doses are to be taken in bulk quantity. Furthermore preparation should be made in such form, which may be used in minimum dose with high efficacy.
Morakkabat (compound formulation)
It should be noted that Unani drugs are herbal, mineral and/or animal origin drugs combination. A scientific or therapeutic rationale must exist for the presence of each herb in the mixture.
Ingredients: There are certain preparations, which contain more ingredients. These are shown in following table 1. Majun Muravvahularvah contains murakkab named Arq Bahar, which again contains 9 ingredients. It is very difficult to obtain those ingredients or to justify their presence in that particular compound, furthermore some drugs which are now not available, should be excluded from the formulation (Table 2). There is no justification of these compound drugs.
Repeat of having same phytochemical constituents /action drugs: As shown in below table 3, certain drugs are mentioned with almost same action. Like Berg Nim (Melia azadarachta leaf), Post Nim (Melia azadirachta bark), Post Bakain (Melia azadirach bark), Berg Bakain (Melia azadirach leaf) in Arq Musaffi (Table 4).
Two Drugs frequently repeated
• Toodri Surkh [3] (Cheiranthus cheiri seed)
• Toodri Safed [3] (Lepidium iberis seed)
• Behman safed [3,7] (Centaurea behen root)
• Behman surkh [3,7] (Salvia haematodes root)
It is almost seen that wherever Toodri Surkh (Cheiranthus cheiri seed) is prescribed or added in compound drugs, Toodri Safed (Lepidium iberis seed) is also added. Like this Behman safed (Centaurea behen root) and Behman surkh (Salvia haematodes root) is also mentioned. There is no justification to use these drugs in same formulation.
Research on possible other than mentioned therapeutic effects in Unani Medicine, prepared from herbal, minerals or animal mixture or specific combination of herbs should be carried out. If identification of active principle is not possible it should be sufficient to identify a characteristic substance or mixture of substance (Chromatographic finger print) to ensure consistent quality of the product. Powder’s particle size should also be defined for Majoon, Laooq and Itrifal etc.
Preparation method of drugs
As now we are living in computer age. We should prepare drugs on modern standard parameters with unani concept, to compete the world. As in preparation of Kushta, heat should be given in terms of temperature regulated by computer but still now it is being done in terms of weight of dung cake. There are sophisticated powdering machines but Kharals are being used. We should also consider the different parts and form of preparation. For example Arusa is very much used in different ailments of lungs. We use it in form of sherbet (syrup), Joshanda (decoction) but as indicated in literature its Rub, Usara, Namak, Gulqand, etc must also be prepared and trialed for efficacy. If results are encouraging and dose is reduced, we must encourage such preparation. Time of preparation is very important; as in Unani literature, Joshanda is indicated to boil till water remains half or 1/3rd or 1/4th, there should be clear indication of time and temperature of boiling. In preparation method steps should be established and at that time these processed drug should be evaluated. For example, when Joshanda is soaked in water for 24 hours then after 24 hours and finished preparation its marker should be established. It will help to make hypothesis in other products for further research. In the preparation of kushta of Para (mercury) there is a stage of kajli and product, should be evaluated. Sharbat, Majun and other preparation’s sugar should also be replaced to other non harmful sugars, which will be safe to diabetic and other such patients.
Toxicity study
A review of the literature should identify the current level of evidence for the safe and effective use of Unani medicine. The study design should be evaluated, taking note of, for example, the number of patients, specific diagnosis, dosage, duration of administration, criteria for evaluation (such as improvement of symptoms) absence of simultaneous therapy, and valid statistical analysis.
Toxicity Study of Kushta and other poisonous drugs should be evaluated, so that limitations, indications, contraindication may be established. Muzir is also described in Unani books as (muzir to Garm Mizaj, Muzir to Meda) but there is no particular regarding. It should be clear that particular drug is toxic or has side effect or after effect in such a way to clear the facts. It is need of time to evaluate the drugs on latest parameters, if they are applicable and available maintaining principles of Unani System.
Clinical trial
In cases where traditional use and experience, its safety and efficacy of Unani medicine in humans have not been established, new clinical studies will be necessary. If well known Unani Medicines are formulated into a new mixture, however, the requirements for proof of safety and efficacy should take into account the well-established uses of each Unani Medicine. Such information may appear in authoritative national documents (such as pharmacopoeias or official guidelines of national authorities) or in highly respected scientific publication or by consultation with traditional medical practitioners but well-established randomized controlled clinical trials provides the highest level of evidence for efficacy. Such studies facilitate the acceptance of Unani Medicines in different regions and in people. Although observational studies involving large numbers of patients may also be very valuable tool for evaluation of Unani Medicine. Sometimes prevention diagnosis improvement and treatment of illness is often based on the species need of the individual patient. Therefore single case study for evaluation of efficacy of a Unani drug should not be ignored. However, it should not be forgotten that new preparative methods might alter the chemical, toxicological and even pharmacological profiles of traditionally used Unani medicines.
The theories and concepts of prevention, diagnosis, improvement and treatment of illness in Unani medicine historically rely on a holistic approach towards the sick individual, and disturbances are treated on the physical, emotional, mental, spiritual and environmental levels simultaneously.
Conclusion
It is concluded that Murakkabat (compound formulations) have vast field to do research work and it is duty of not only of Unani experts but those having faith in traditional medicine, to come forward to accept challenges of modern time and establish new field of research not only of single drugs but in compound drugs. There should be thoroughly consideration of reverse pharmacology to reduce the number of ingredients of compound for better efficacy with consideration of cost to take this system on its peak as it was in past.
References

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