Virology & Mycology Infectious Diseases
 
   Publications A-Z
A
»Accounting & Marketing
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Advanced Chemical Engineering
»Advances in Automobile Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
»Advances in Robotics & Automation
»Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advance Research in Meteorological Sciences
»Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
»Aging Science
»Agrotechnology
»AIDS & Clinical Research
»Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
»Allergy & Therapy
»Alternative & Integrative Medicine
»Air & Water borne Diseases
»Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
»Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
»Anaplastology
»Anatomy & Physiology
»Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
»Andrology-Open Access
»Anesthesia & Clinical Research
»Angiology: Open Access
»Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
»Anthropology
»Applied & Computational Mathematics
»Applied Mechanical Engineering
»Aquaculture Research & Development
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
»Architectural Engineering Technology
»Arthritis
»Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Astrobiology & Outreach
»Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
»Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
»Autism-Open Access
  
B
»Bacteriology & Parasitology
»Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
»Bioceramics Development and Applications
»Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
»Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access
»Biochips & Tissue Chips
»Biodiversity & Endangered Species
»Bioenergetics: Open Access
»Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
»Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
»Biosafety & Health Education
»Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
»Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
»Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Biomusical Engineering
»Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
»Biological Systems- Open Access
»Biology and Medicine
»Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
»Bioremediation & Biodegradation
»Biosafety
»Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
»Biotechnology & Biomaterials
»Bioterrorism & Biodefense
»Blood Disorders & Transfusion
»Blood & Lymph
»Bone Marrow Research
»Brain Disorders & Therapy
»Business and Economics Journal
»Business and Financial Affairs
  
C
»Cancer Science & Therapy
»Climatology & Weather forecasting
»Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
»Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
»Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
»Cell & Developmental Biology
»Cell Science & Therapy
»Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
»Chemical Sciences Journal
»Chemotherapy: Open Access
»Child and Adolescent Behavior
»Chromatography & Separation Techniques
»Civil & Environmental Engineering
»Civil & Legal Sciences
»Clinical & Cellular Immunology
»Clinical Case Reports
»Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
»Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
»Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
»Clinical & Experimental Pathology
»Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
»Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
»Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
»Clinical Research & Bioethics
»Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
»Clinical Toxicology
»Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
»Cloning & Transgenesis
»Community Medicine & Health Education
»Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
»Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
»Cytology & Histology
D
»Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Defense Management
»Dentistry
»Depression and Anxiety
»Developing Drugs
»Diabetes & Metabolism
»Drug Designing
»Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
  
E
»Earth Science & Climatic Change
»Ecosystem & Ecography
»Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
»Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
»Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
»Epidemiology: Open Access
»Emergency Medicine
»Ergonomics
»Electrical & Electronics
»Enzyme Engineering
»Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
  
F
»Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
»Fermentation Technology
»Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
»Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
»Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Food Processing & Technology
»Forensic Biomechanics
»Forensic Research
»Forest Research: Open Access
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
»Fungal Genomics & Biology
  
G
»Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
»Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
»Gene Technology
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
»Glycobiology
»Glycomics & Lipidomics
»Gynecology& Obstetrics
»General Medicine
»General Practice
»Geography & Natural Disasters
»Geology & Geosciences
»Geophysics & Remote Sensing
»Gerontology & Geriatric Research
»Global Economics
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
  
H
»Hair : Therapy & Transplantation
»Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
»Health Care : Current Reviews
»Health & Medical Informatics
»Hereditary Genetics
»Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»Horticulture
»Hotel & Business Management
»Human Genetics & Embryology
»Hydrology: Current Research
»Hypertension- Open Access
  
I
»Industrial Engineering & Management
»Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Infectious Diseases and Therapy
»Information Technology & Software Engineering
»Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»Integrative Oncology
»Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Accounting Research
»International Journal of Advanced Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
»International Journal of Economics and Management Science
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
»International Journal of waste resources
»International Journal of Genomic Medicine
»International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»Innovative Energy Policies
»Immunome Research
  
J
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
  
L
»Liver
» Leukemia
» Lovotics
  
M
»Marine Science: Research & Development
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
»Mass Communication & Journalism
»Material Sciences & Engineering
»Medicinal Chemistry
»Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
»Medical Diagnostic Methods
»Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
»Medical & Surgical Urology
»Membrane Science & Technology
»Metabolic Syndrome
»Metabolomics:Open Access
»Microbial & Biochemical Technology
»Modern Chemistry & Applications
»Molecular Biology
»Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
»Molecular and Genetic Medicine
»Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
»Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
»Mycobacterial Diseases
N
»Natural Products Chemistry & Research
»Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
»Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
»Neonatal Biology
»Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neurology & Neurophysiology
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
»Neurological Disorders
»Novel Physiotherapies
»Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
»Nutrition & Food Sciences
»Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
»Nursing & Care
  
O
»Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
»Oceanography-Open Access
»Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
»OMICS Journal of Radiology
»Osteoporosis and Physical Activity
»Oral Health and Dental Management
»Oral Hygiene & Health
»Organic Chemistry: Current Research
»Orthopedic & Muscular System: Current Research
»Otolaryngology
  
P
»Pain & Relief
»Palliative Care & Medicine
»Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
»Pediatrics & Therapeutics
»Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
»Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
»Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs: Open Access
»Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
»Pharmacovigilance
»Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
»Physical Mathematics
»Plant Pathology & Microbiology
»Plant Biochemistry & Physiology
»Pollution Effects & Control
»political Sciences & public affairs
»Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
»Powder Metallurgy & Mining
»Primatology
»Primary Health Care: Open Access
»Probiotics & Health
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Proteomics & Bioinformatics
»Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Psychology & Psychotherapy
»Psychological Abnormalities in Children
»Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
  
R
»Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
»Rheumatology: Current Research
»Rice Research: Open Access
  
S
» Single Cell Biology
»Sleep Disorders & Therapy
»Socialomics
»Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
»Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
»Spine
»Stem Cell Research & Therapy
»Steroids & Hormonal Science
»Stock & Forex Trading
»Surgery: Current Research
  
T
»Telecommunications System & Management
»Textile Science & Engineering
»Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
»Thermodynamics & Catalysis
»Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
»Tissue Science & Engineering
»Translational Medicine
»Transplantation Technologies & Research
»Transcriptomics: Open Access
»Trauma & Treatment
»Tropical Diseases
»Tropical Medicine and Surgery
»Tourism & Hospitality
  
V
»Vaccines & Vaccination
»Vascular Medicine & surgery
»Veterinary Science & Technology
»Virology & Mycology
»Vitamins & Minerals
»Vortex Science and Technology
  
W
»Women's Health Care
  
Y
»Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
   Browse by Subjects
Clinical
» AIDS & Clinical Research
» Anesthesia & Clinical Research
» Angiology
» Cancer Science & Therapy
» Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
» Cell Science & Therapy
» Chemotherapy
» Child & Adolescent Behavior
» Clinical & Cellular Immunology
» Clinical Case Reports
» Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
» Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
» Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
» Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
» Clinical & Experimental Pathology
» Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
» Clinical Research & Bioethics
» Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
» Clinical Toxicology
» Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
» Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
» Cytology & Histology
» Forensic Research
»Forensic Biomechanics
» Integrative Oncology
»Immunome Research
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
» Neurology & Neurophysiology
» Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
» Stem Cell Research & Therapy
» Transplantation Technologies & Research
   
Pharmaceutical Sciences
» Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
» Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
» Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
» Biochemical Pharmacology
» Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
» Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
» Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
» Developing Drugs
» Drug Designing
» Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
» Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
» Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
» Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
» Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs
» Pharmacovigilance
» Vaccines & Vaccination
   
Chemistry
» Advanced Chemical Engineering
» Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
» Chemical Sciences Journal
» Chromatography & Separation Techniques
» Medicinal Chemistry
» Modern Chemistry & Applications
» Natural Products Chemistry & Research
» Organic Chemistry
» Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
» Plant Biochemistry & Physiology
» Thermodynamics & Catalysis
» Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
   
Environmental
» Anthropology
» Aquaculture Research & Development
» Astrobiology & Outreach
» Biodiversity & Endangered Species
» Earth Science & Climatic Change
» Ecosystem & Ecography
» Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
» Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
» Geography & Natural Disasters
» Hydrology: Current Research
»Innovative Energy Policies
»International Journal of waste resources
» Oceanography-Open Access
» Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
» Pollution Effects & Control
» Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
   
Omics
» Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Ergonomics
» Glycomics & Lipidomics
» Health & Medical Informatics
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
» Metabolomics:Open Access
» OMICS Journal of Radiology
» Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
» Proteomics & Bioinformatics
» Transcriptomics
   
Life Sciences
» Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
» Aging Science
» Agrotechnology
» Air & Water Borne Diseases
» Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
» Autism-Open Access
» Bacteriology & Parasitology
» Biochemistry & Physiology
» Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
» Bioenergetics
» Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
» Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
» Biological Systems
» Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
» Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Bioremediation & Biodegradation
» Biosafety
» Biosafety & Health Education
» Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
» Biotechnology & Biomaterials
» Bioterrorism & Biodefense
» Cell & Developmental Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
» Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
» Enzyme Engineering
» Fermentation Technology
» Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
» Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
» Forest Research
» Fungal Genomics & Biology
» Gene Technology
» Glycobiology
» Horticulture
» Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
» Marine Science: Research & Development
» Membrane Science & Technology
» Microbial & Biochemical Technology
» Molecular Biology
» Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
» Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
» Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
» Nutrition & Food Sciences
» Plant Pathology & Microbiology
» Primatology
» Probiotics & Health
» Rice Research: Open Access
» Single Cell Biology
» Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
» Tissue Science & Engineering
» Tropical Diseases
» Veterinary Science & Technology
» Vitamins & Minerals
»Virology & Mycology
   
Engineering
» Advances in Automobile Engineering
» Advances in Robotics & Automation
» Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
» Applied & Computational Mathematics
» Applied Mechanical Engineering
» Architectural Engineering Technology
» Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
» Biochips & Tissue Chips
» Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
» Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
» Civil & Environmental Engineering
» Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Electrical & Electronics
» Food Processing & Technology
» Geology and Geosciences
» Geophysics & Remote sensing
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
» Industrial Engineering & Management
» Information Technology & Software Engineering
» International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
» Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
» Lovotics
» Material Sciences & Engineering
»Physical Mathematics
» Powder Metallurgy & Mining
» Telecommunications System & Management
» Textile Science & Engineering
»Vortex Science and Technology
   
Medical Sciences
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Allergy & Therapy
» Alternative & Integrative Medicine
» Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
» Anaplastology
» Anatomy & Physiology
» Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
» Andrology
» Arthritis
» Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
» Bioceramics Development and Applications
» Biology and Medicine
» Biomusical Engineering
» Blood & Lymph
» Blood Disorders & Transfusion
» Bone Marrow Research
» Brain Disorders & Therapy
» Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
» Cloning & Transgenesis
» Community Medicine & Health Education
» Dentistry
» Depression and Anxiety
» Diabetes & Metabolism
» Emergency Medicine
» Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
» Epidemiology: Open Access
» Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
» Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
» General Medicine
» General Practice
» Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
» Gynecology& Obstetrics
» Gerontology & Geriatrics Research
» Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
» Hair: Therapy & Transplantation
» Health Care : Current Reviews
» Hereditary Genetics
» Human Genetics & Embryology
» Hypertension-Open Access
» Infectious Diseases & Therapy
» International Journal of Genomic Medicine
» Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
» International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
» Leukemia
» Liver
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
» Medical & Surgical Urology
» Medical Diagnostic Methods
» Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
» Metabolic Syndrome
» Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
» Molecular and Genetic Medicine
» Mycobacterial Diseases
» Neonatal Biology
» Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
» Neurological Disorders
» Novel Physiotherapies
» Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
» Nursing & Care
» Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
» Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
» Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
» Oral Health and Dental Management
» Oral Hygiene & Health
» Orthopedic & Muscular System
» Osteoporosis & Physical Activity
» Otolaryngology
» Pain & Relief
» Palliative Care & Medicine
» Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
» Pediatrics & Therapeutics
» Primary Health Care
» Psychological Abnormalities in Children
» Psychology & Psychotherapy
» Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
» Rheumatology: Current Research
» Sleep Disorders & Therapy
» Spine
» Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
» Steroids & Hormonal Science
» Surgery: Current Research
» Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
» Translational Medicine
» Trauma & Treatment
» Tropical Medicine and Surgery
» Vascular Medicine & surgery
» Women's Health Care
» Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
Management
» Accounting & Marketing
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
» Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Business and Economics Journal
» Business and Financial Affairs
» Civil & Legal Sciences
» Defense Management
» Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
» Global Economics
» Hotel & Business Management
» Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»International Journal of Accounting Research
» International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
» Mass Communication & Journalism
» political Sciences & public affairs
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
» Socialomics
» Stock & Forex Trading
» Tourism & Hospitality
 
   Conferences
Upcoming Conferences
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Translational Medicine, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Predictive, Preventive and Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
» 2nd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» International Conference on Genetic Engineering & Genetically Modified Organisms, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» 4th World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Radiology and Imaging, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Dental & Oral Health, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA
»International Conference on Oceanography, August 21-23, 2013 Orlando, USA
»International Conference on Biodefense & Natural Disasters, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA
» World Congress on Endocrinology, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo, August 26-27, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» 2nd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» International Conference on Omics Studies, September 04-06, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
»International Symposia on Entomology, September 04-06, 2013 Miami, USA
»2nd International Conference on Surgery and Anesthesia, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers & Biosimilars, September 23-25, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»4th World Congress on Biotechnology, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»International Conference on Psychology, Autism and Alzheimer's Disease, September 30-October 01, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, September 30-October 02, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Summit on Toxicology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biochemical & Molecular Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics, October 7-9, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical & Cellular Immunology, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»4th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Natural Products, October 21-23, 2013 Hyderabad, India
» 3rd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»3rd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs, & STIs, October 24-25, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
» International Conference on Fermentation Technology, Bioprocess and Cell Culture, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»International Conference on Functional and Comparative Genomics & Pharmacogenomics, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Summit on GMP, QA & QC, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Summit on GLP, GCP & Clinical Pharmacology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials, November 18-19, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy & Dispensing, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»3rd World Congress on Virology, November, 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious diseases, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»3rd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research, November 20-22, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Nursing & Emergency Medicine, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Nanotek & Expo, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine, December 09-11, 2013 Hyderabad, India
»2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, February 03-05, 2014 Hyderabad, India
Previous Conferences Organized/Co-organized
»2nd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Animal & Dairy Sciences, July 23-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»4th International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety, May 21-22, 2013 Beijing, China
»4th World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence, May 20-22, 2013 Beijing, China
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Exhibition and Conference on Water Technologies, Environmental Technologies & Renewable Energy, February 13-14, 2013 Mumbai, India
»International Summit on GMP & GCP: USA, Europe, Japan, Asia Pacific December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»International Conference on QA, QC and Validation, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»2nd International Conference on Nanotek and Expo, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity and Weight Management, December 03-05, 2012 at DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia, USA.
»International conference on Hair Transplantation and Trichology November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference on Anesthesia & Perioperative Care during November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Toxicology Summit & Expo November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Surgery & Transplantation November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad, India.
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
»2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Cosmetics November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Genetic Syndromes & GeneTherapy November 19-21, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA
»Global Biofuels and Bioproducts Summit November 19-21, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics-2012, November 1921, 2012, Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Cell Science and Stem Cell Research, November 12-14, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»International Conference on Regenerative and Functional Medicine, November 12-14, 2012 at San Antonio, Texas, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics November 12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
» International Confeernce on Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine October 29 - 31, 2012 Chicago, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Aided Drug Design & QSAR October 29-31, 2012, Chicago, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical and Cellular Immunology October 22-24, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Expo on Material science and Engineering October 22-24, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
» International Expo and Conference on Analytrix & HPLC October 22-24, 2012 Hilton Northbrook, Chicago, USA.
»International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Otolaryngology October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International conference on Biothreats and Biodefense October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International Conference on Tissue Science and Engineering October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»International conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»International Conference on Emerging Cell Therapies October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism which is to be held on September 24-26, 2012 Marriott Convention Center, Hyderabad, India.
»2nd International Conference on Pediatrics & Gynecology September 24-26, 2012, Hyderabad Marriott Hotel & Convention Centre , Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Translational medicine-2012, September 17-19, 2012 Holiday Inn San Antonio, Texas, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Biotechnology September 13-15, 2012 HICC, Hyderabad, India
»International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad, India.
» International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
» International Conference on Hotel and Business Management September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
»International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo September 10-12, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, TX, USA.
»International Conference on Central Nervous System September 5-7, 2012 Double by Hilton Philadephia, USA.
»International Conference on Occupational Health and Safety Summit September 5-7, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on pathology August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy-2012 August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy August 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Nephrology and Therapeutics August 20-22, 2012 Chicago Chicago, USA.
»2nd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination August 20-22, 2012 at Chicago, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Virology August 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»World Congress on Earth Science & Climate Change August 21-22, 2012 Chicago, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics August 13-15, 2012 Chicago, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Rheumatology & Therapeutics August 1415, 2012 at Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»2nd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
» International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology &Therapeutics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 26-28, 2012 Marriott Hotel, Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference & Exhibition on Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA.
»World Congress on Gastroenterology and Urology March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA
»2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA.
» 2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA.
»2nd world Congress on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques December 16-17, 2011 San franscico, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism December 6-8, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»World Congress on Pediatrics & Gynecology December 6-8, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research Nov 29-Dec 1, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Biotechnology Nov 29 -Dec 1, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Vaccines & Vaccination November 22-24, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Biomarkers & Clinical Research September 12-14, 2011 Baltimore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Virology September 5-7, 2011 Baltimore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs September 6-7, 2011 Baltimore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cancer Science & Therapy August 15-17, 2011 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical Research: Dermatology, Ophthalmology and Cardiology July 5-6, 2011 San Francisco, USA.
»International Conference & Exhibition on Proteomics & Bioinformatics June 6-8, 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference & Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Biotechnology June 6-8, 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.
»2nd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit June 6-8, 2011 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems June 7-8, Las Vegas, USA.
»World Congress on Biotechnology March 21-23, 2011 Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Diabetes and Metabolism December 13-14, 2010 Santa Clara, USA.
»International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research November 22-23, 2010 Santa Clara, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit November 01-03, 2010 Hyderabad, India
»International Conference & Exhibition on Bioequivalence & Bioavailability 2010, Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 01-03, 2010.
»Integrating Glycomics with other Omics in Cancer Detection and Diagnosis, January 19-20, 2010, Stanford University School of Medicine.
»3rd World Congress of Gene-2009, December 1-7, 2009.
»7th Annual World Congress of International Drug Discovery Science & Technology, October 22-25.
»2nd WSA-2009, July 18-20, 2009
»1st CCSB-2009, February 16-17, 2009
»2nd PRICPS-4th AOHUPO, June 22-26, 2008
»95th ISCA, January 5-8, 2008

Search :     Advanced Search 

HomeHome   |   Join Join   |   Contact Contact     

Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering Video Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering Linkedin - Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering Twitter - Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering Facebook - Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering Blog
 
Editorial Open Access
 
The Exploration of Icephobic Materials and Their Future Prospects in Aircraft Icing Applications
Formerly at Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, UK Omid Gohardani*
 
Corresponding Author : Omid Gohardani
Formerly at Cranfield University
Bedfordshire, UK
E-mail: omid.gohardani@alumni2009.cranfield.ac.uk
 
Received October 30, 2012; Accepted October 30, 2012; Published November 02, 2012
 
Citation: Gohardani O (2012) The Exploration of Icephobic Materials and Their Future Prospects in Aircraft Icing Applications. J Aeronaut Aerospace Eng 1:e116. doi: 10.4172/2168-9792.1000e116
 
Copyright: 2012 Gohardani O. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 
Related article at
DownloadPubmed DownloadDOAJ DownloadScholar Google
 
 
 
Ever since the early days of aviation, scientists have undertaken numerous challenges pertaining to the influence of atmospheric conditions on flight characteristics and performance. A specific flight scenario may expose the airframe of the aircraft to various factors related to weather conditions such as lighting strikes, gust, rain, hail, snow and in rare conditions volcanic ash [1]. Although it is unlikely that an aircraft will be subjected to all of these conditions simultaneously, the sudden temperature change that the vehicle experiences between on-ground conditions and the cruise altitude can be considerably significant. The aforementioned conditions hence place stringent requirements on the external surfaces of the aircraft and their respective material characteristics.
 
A paramount factor of interest which remains highly frequent occurs upon impingement and accretion of super-cooled liquid droplets on the various aircraft surfaces and consequent aircraft icing, as shown in figure 1. Liquid water content, droplet size, surface characteristics and temperature, further define the character of the formed ice on the aircraft [2]. In extreme cases these impacts may result in rain erosion on the aircraft fuselage [1]. Due to the adverse impact that icing can impose on the aircraft’s flight characteristics, various measures are taken in order to minimize the effects of icing such as usage of thermal, mechanical and chemical ice protection systems. While regions where potential icing conditions may occur often have been avoided by pilots throughout the history of aviation, the increasing transport predictions of the future will ensue that icing conditions always cannot be avoided. Current civilian and military aircraft occasionally have to operate in icing conditions despite the existing safety concerns and still be able to complete their missions successfully. A recurring subject in this context is therefore whether or not icephobic external surface materials, which in essence will repel the ice and minimize ice adhesion, can be identified for usage on both commercial and military aircraft.
 
The quest for potential icephobic materials has been ongoing since the very first icing encounters during flight. In search for the ultimate icephobic material, researchers have utilized many different substances and compounds applied on the leading edge of an airfoil, such as various oils, grease, paraffin, glycerin, corn varnish, and commercial paint. This list is however not exhaustive and many other materials and coating have been considered in order to reduce the ice adhesion during flight [3,4]. With the inception of nanotechnology, the spectra of potential materials that may fulfill the desired characteristics of low ice adhesion and hydrophobicity have expanded considerably. Inspiration from lotus-leaf like superhydrophobic surfaces has instigated further research on the role of superhydrophobicty on ice-repellence. Along this path, other materials that have generated the interest of many researchers are carbon nanotubes implemented in composite materials, given that the latter are rather commonly utilized materials in aeronautics. In particular one recent study conducted by Gohardani et al. [5], has considered rain erosion characteristics of a set of polymer matrix composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes, as external surface materials on aircraft, depicted in figure 2. As an extension to this study, Gohardani examined the ice adhesion characteristics of these materials in aircraft icing applications [2] and further explored their wettability properties [6,7].
 
Among numerous recently identified ice-repellant solutions, a nano-fluorocarbon [8], silicone coating [9] and slippery, liquidinfused porous surfaces (SLIPS) can be mentioned. In this context, the most promising solution SLIPS, provides a stable and ultrasmooth, low-hysteresis lubricant overlayer maintained by infusing a waterimmiscible liquid into a nanostructured surface [10]. This approach enables a chemically functionalized solution which has an affinity to the infiltrated liquid and arrests its movement.
 
In light of the preceding discussion, a number of challenges have to be tackled for a successful implementation of an icephobic material in aerospace applications. These include, but are not limited to the following:
 
1. The icephobic material has to withstand erosion and wear and other weathering conditions in terms of its structural integrity.
 
2. The material has to be tested in a realistic and dynamic environment such as inside an icing tunnel at high enough velocities, analogous to the conditions encountered during flight or tested during actual flight tests.
 
3. The question of whether the icephobic material should be applied as a bulk material or a coating shall be addressed.
 
4. The icephobic material has to preserve its initial characteristics in terms of its hydrophobicity despite exposure to severe wear mechanisms such as erosion and corrosion.
 
5. The material has to be inexpensive to manufacture and coherent in terms of material properties and equally environmentally friendly.
 
On a broad perspective the aforementioned points, partially explain the challenge of fulfilling all the requirements for a successful implementation of an icephobic material in aerospace applications. One of the difficulties that often emerges in aircraft icing research stems from the intricate nature of replicating realistic flight conditions, prior to any flight testing. Such research hence requires a large icing tunnel, which essentially is represented by a refrigerated wind tunnel where either a model of the aircraft or its full sized components can be tested in realistic flight conditions.
 
With the advent of new technologies and novel categories of flying vehicles, such as Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) and their extended range operations, the issues associated with flight in icing conditions are often not incorporated during the initial design stage. Hence, an icephobic material fulfilling the aforementioned criteria would indeed extend the operational hours of these vehicles and contribute to safer flights in the future.
 
It can be stated that while modern meteorological systems such as the current icing potential (CIP) and forecast icing potential (FIP) are able to outline icing potentials with a detailed diagnosis provided for instance by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), they are unable to foresee every single occurrence of icing that a flying aircraft may encounter. As all commercial airliners utilize ice protection systems, any improvement of the existing systems will result in economical savings and contribute to further growth of the aviation industry in the long term. In addition, such solutions would further be beneficial for general aviation aircraft which often lack the same ice protection systems as commercial airliners. A consecutive effect of savings as a result of a successful implementation of an icephobic material, will further pave the path for a higher safety at a lower cost, in conformity with the demand of increasing passenger transport, predicted for the future.
 
Conclusively, open access journals such as the Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering published by the OMICS Publishing group, enable that the boundaries of information retrieval and sharing between scientists are removed and further research can be undertaken in different scientific fields. The purpose of this editorial has thus been to incline perspective researchers and scientists within the aircraft icing and advanced materials communities and aerospace engineering professionals to disseminate their research findings to a larger extent in open access journals. This approach facilitates access to the latest research findings for the scientific community and the general public, without any information barriers.
 
References
 










 


 View 

 Download    pdf version of this article

References











Figures at a glance

Figure 1 Figure 2
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
 
Share This Article
   
 
   
 
About JAAE
Download Journal Home
Download Editorial Board Members
Download Current Issue
Download Previous Issue
Download Archive
Download Instructions for Authors
Download Submit Manuscript
Download Contact Editorial Office
 
Article usage
  Total views: 10499
  [From(publication date):
December-2012- Apr 17, 2014]
  Breakdown by view type
  HTML page views : 6760
  PDF downloads :3739
 
Article Tools
Download Export citation
Download Share/Blog this article
Download Recommend to your Librarian