|Life is dependent on basic elements such air and water. But the same natural elements also convey death for almost all organisms on earth which are reflected as air or water borne diseases. Human being is highly susceptible to such infections where an array or air and water borne diseases are being encountered by us almost on a regular basis. Depending on the global climate change; prevalence of the type of disease differs from one climatic zone to other. The present global disease monitoring reveals that there is a steep rise and alteration in disease epidemiology which is directly or indirectly related to climate change and associated environmental factors.|
|An airborne disease is any disease that is caused by pathogens and transmitted through the air. Airborne diseases are spread when droplets of pathogens are expelled into the air due to coughing, sneezing or talking. Water-borne disease is any disease that is caused by pathogenic microorganisms and most commonly transmitted through contact or consumption of infected water.|
|Air & Water Borne Diseases journal is a peer reviewed and open access journal publishes articles in the scientific society. The journal welcomes articles in the form of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications etc. on the relevant fields|
|Current researches on large number of air and water borne disease causing pathogens such as Ebola, Anthrax, Chickenpox, Influenza, Smallpox, Tuberculosis, Taeniasis, E. coli, Cholera, Hookworm, etc. Global research efforts on this issue require a proper platform for effective scientific discussion on this important topic.|
|The journal is using Editorial Manager System for quality peer-review. Review processing is performed by the editorial board members of Journal of Air & Water Borne Diseases or outside experts; at least two independent reviewers approval followed by editor approval is required for acceptance of any citable manuscript. Authors can track their progress through the system. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process.|
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An airborne disease is caused by droplets of pathogens which are expelled into the air by coughing, sneezing or talking. The relevant pathogens may be viruses, bacteria, or fungi. Many common infections can spread by airborne transmission are tuberculosis, influenza, small pox. Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms and most commonly transmitted through contaminated fresh water. Infections can be spread by bathing, washing, drinking, in the preparation of food, or the consumption of food thus infected.
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Air pollution is caused by release of particulates, biological molecules or harmful gases into atmosphere, which causes death to humans and damage to living organisms like food crops. Water pollution occurs by the contamination of water bodies like lakes, rivers, oceans. Therefore environment degradation occurs which causes the pollutants to discharge directly or indirectly into water bodies.
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Sanitary engineering is the application of engineering methods to improve sanitation of human communities, primarily by providing the removal and disposal of human waste, and in addition to the supply of safe potable water. It includes traffic management, concerns about noise pollution or light pollution, aesthetic concerns such as landscaping, and environmental conversation as it pertains to plants and animals. This field usually employed for the primary goal of disease prevention within human beings by assuring a supply of healthy drinking water, treatment of waste water, removing garbage from inhabited areas.
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Pathology is a branch of medical science primarily concerning the examination of organs, tissues, and bodily fluids in order to make a diagnosis of disease. The main branches of pathology are clinical pathology, anatomical pathology and general pathology. General pathology describes the scientific study of disease which can describes abnormality that is causing changes in the structure or function of body parts. Anatomical pathology involves the study and diagnosis of disease based on the examination of surgically removed bodily specimens or sometimes of the whole body (autopsy). Clinical pathology concerns the laboratory analysis of blood, urine and tissue samples to examine and diagnose disease.
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Vectors are living organisms that can transmit infectious diseases between humans or from animals to humans. Many of these vectors are bloodsucking insects, which ingest disease-producing microorganisms during a blood meal from an infected host (human or animal) and later inject it into a new host during their subsequent blood meal. Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod species, such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomine bugs, sandflies, and blackflies. Globalization of travel and trade, unplanned urbanization and environmental challenges such as climate change are having a significant impact on disease transmission like dengue, chikungunya and West Nile virus. Changes in agricultural practices due to variation in temperature and rainfall also affect the transmission of vector-borne diseases.
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A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, which stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign and destroy it. Vaccinology is the science of developing vaccines to prevent diseases and how the immune system responds to vaccines. It also includes evaluation of immunization programs, vaccine safety and effectiveness, as well as surveillance of the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases.
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Tuberculosis infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It typically attacks the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who have an active TB infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit respiratory fluids through the air.
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Amoebiasis, or amebiasis, refers to infection caused by the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica. Symptoms can range from mild diarrhea to dysentery with blood and mucus in the stool. E. histolytica is usually a commensal organism. Severe amoebiasis infections (known as invasive or fulminant amoebiasis) occur in two major forms. Invasion of the intestinal lining causes amoebic dysentery or amoebic colitis. If the parasite reaches the bloodstream it can spread through the body, most frequently ending up in the liver where it causes amoebic liver abscesses. Liver abscesses can occur without previous development of amoebic dysentery. When no symptoms are present, the infected individual is still a carrier, able to spread the parasite to others through poor hygienic practices. While symptoms at onset can be similar to bacillary dysentery, amoebiasis is not bacteriological in origin and treatments differ, although both infections can be prevented by good sanitary practices.
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Zoonosis are infectious diseases of animals (usually vertebrates), that can naturally be transmitted to humans. Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and influenza are zoonoses. Zoonoses can be caused by a range of disease pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Zoonoses have different modes of transmission. In direct zoonosis the disease is directly transmitted from animals to humans through media such as air (influenza) or through bites and saliva (Rabies).In contrast, transmission can also occur via an intermediate species (referred to as a vector), which carry the disease pathogen without getting infected. When humans infect other animals; it is called reverse zoonosis or anthroponosis.
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Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. The disease begins with weakness, trouble seeing, feeling tired, and trouble speaking. This may then be followed by weakness of the arms, chest muscles, and legs. The disease does not usually affect consciousness or cause a fever. Botulism can occur in a few different ways. The bacterial spores that cause it are common in both soil and water. They produce botulinum toxin when exposed to low oxygen levels and certain temperatures. Foodborne botulism happens when food containing the toxin is eaten. Infant botulism happens when the bacteria develops in the intestines and releases toxin. Typically this only happens in children less than six months of age as after that protective mechanisms develop. Wound botulism is found most often among those who inject street drugs. In this situation spores enter a wound and, in the absence of oxygen, release toxin. It is not passed directly between people.
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Cholera is an infection of the intestines by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days. Vomiting and muscle cramps may also occur. Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. This may result in sunken eyes, cold skin, decreased skin elasticity, and wrinkling of the hands and feet. The dehydration may result in the skin turning bluish. Symptoms start two hours to five days after exposure. Cholera is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae, with some types producing more severe disease than others. It is spread mostly by water and food that has been contaminated with human feces containing the bacteria. Insufficiently cooked seafood is a common source. Humans are the only animal affected. Risk factors for the disease include poor sanitation, not enough clean drinking water, and poverty. There are concerns that rising sea levels will increase rates of disease. This disease is diagnosed by the discovery of these bacteria in the stool of the test subject. A rapid test is available but is not as accurate.
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Diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day. It often lasts for a few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss. Signs of dehydration often begin with loss of the normal stretchiness of the skin and changes in personality. This can progress to decreased urination, loss of skin colour, a fast heart rate, and a decrease in responsiveness as it becomes more severe. The most common cause is an infection of the intestines due to a virus, bacteria, or parasite; a condition known as gastroenteritis. These infections are often acquired from food or water that has been contaminated by stool, or directly from another person who is infected. It may be divided into three types: short duration watery diarrhoea, short duration bloody diarrhoea, and if it lasts for more than two weeks, persistent diarrhoea. The short duration watery diarrhoea may be due to an infection by cholera. If blood is present it is also known as dysentery. A number of non-infectious causes may also result in diarrhoea, including hyperthyroidism, lactose intolerance, inflammatory bowel disease, a number of medications, and irritable bowel syndrome.
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Brucellosis, Bang's disease, Crimean fever, Gibraltar fever, Malta fever, Maltese fever, Mediterranean fever, rock fever, or undulant fever, is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals or close contact with their secretions. Brucella species are small, Gram-negative, nonmotile, nonspore-forming, rod-shaped (coccobacilli) bacteria. They function as facultative intracellular parasites, causing chronic disease, which usually persists for life. Four species infect human: B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, and B. canis. B. melitensis is the most virulent and invasive species; it usually infects goats and occasionally sheep. B. abortus is less virulent and is primarily a disease of cattle. B. suis is of intermediate virulence and chiefly infects pig. B. canis resides in the dogs. Symptoms include profuse sweating and joint and muscle pain.
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Taeniasis is a parasitic disease due to infection with tapeworms belonging to the genus Taenia. The two most important human pathogens in the genus are Taenia solium (the pork tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the beef tapeworm). The third species Taenia asiatica is found only in East Asia. Taeniasis is generally asymptomatic, but severe infection causes weight loss, dizziness, abdominal pain, diarrhea, headaches, nausea, constipation, chronic indigestion, and loss of appetite.A type of taeniasis called cysticercosis is caused by accidental infection with the eggs of T. solium from contaminated food and water. It is known as the most pathogenic form caused by tapeworms. A specific form of cysticercosis called neurocysticercosis is said to be the most common infection of the central nervous system.
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*Unofficial 2015 Journal Impact Factor was established by dividing the number of articles published in 2013 and 2014 with the number of times they are cited in 2015 based on Google search and the Scholar Citation Index database. If 'X' is the total number of articles published in 2013 and 2014, and 'Y' is the number of times these articles were cited in indexed journals during 2015 then, impact factor = Y/X