ISSN: 2167-7182
Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric Research
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business
 

Constructive Development of Aging

William H. Wehrmacher1* and Luke Curtis2
1Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois, USA
2Medical writer and researcher, Forest Hills, NY, USA
Corresponding Author : William H. Wehrmacher
Professor of Medicine & Adjunct Professor of Physiology
Loyola University of Chicago
Stritch School of Medicine
Maywood, Illinois, USA
E-mail: wwehrma@lumc.edu
Received August 29, 2013; Accepted September 16, 2013; Published September 18, 2013
Citation: Wehrmacher WH, Curtis L (2013) Constructive Development of Aging. J Gerontol Geriat Res 2:131. doi:10.4172/2167-7182.1000131
Copyright: © 2013 Wehrmacher WH, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric Research

Abstract

Geriatric publications have extensively and effectively emphasized combating the diseases, degenerations, and diminishing organ functions during aging, but have done little to exploit concurrent favorable developments. Effective management can be improved by both and are required to produce satisfaction and productivity for the elderly

Keywords
Aging; Diseases; Favorable developments
Introduction
During the last century, there was delight with improving life expectancy and relatively little concern for how to deal with the elderly. In 1900, the average life expectancy at birth was 48.3 years, and by the end of the century, it had increased to 76.9 years [1]. Improved sanitation, nutrition and medical care initiated this increase, and improvements in both propelled it. Unlike the increased life expectancy demonstrated from birth, life expectancy for people after retirement age did not increase until the last third of the century so there was little need for a substantial change in the management of the aged. Although increased life expectancy was appreciated by individuals, the need for new and revised medical and social planning has been substantially and dangerously delayed.
Cognition
The severe impairments in brain function occurring during aging are the result of disease or injury (stroke and other cerebro-vascular diseases, Alzheimer’s, neurosyphilis etc.) not the result of aging developments themselves. Intellectual abilities continue to develop during advancing age, particularly over a wide range of domain knowledge, vocabulary, and verbal comprehension which Kanfer and Ackerman call “crystallized or Gc” to distinguish it from Gf “Fluid” current, abstract, adaptive intellectual abilities which is better measured by general metal ability tests [2]. Aging, in adult development, and Work motivation, they indicate domain knowledge across the life course and suggest that individuals may compensate for declines in Gf by selecting jobs and goals and by using self-regulatory strategies that optimize existing knowledge and skill.
Asthma and Allergies
Some studies suggest that elderly adults are somewhat less likely to experience asthma and rhinitis than children or younger adults. A National Health Interview Study (NHIS) of 54,485 noninstitutionalized US adults over age 65 years reported an asthma prevalence of 7.0%, with a decreasing prevalence with increasing age [3]. Asthma prevalence was only 45% as common among those aged 85 or more years (3.6%) as compared to those in the 65 to 69 age group (8.0%)(95% CI of 0.36-0.55) [3]. A Swiss study of 9,651 adults of 18+ years had self reported allergic rhinitis rates which were significantly greater in the younger versus older age cohorts (women 24.5% at ≤ 60 years, 15.4% at 60+ years, p<0.001, and men 21.6% at ≤ 60 years and 13.0% at 60+ years p<0.001) [4].
Although asthma is less common in advancing years, asthma often goes undiagnosed or untreated in elderly adults [5]. The exact mechanism for lower asthma and allergy rates in the elderly is not well known, but may be related to lower rates of allergic sensitization in older adults. A Swiss study of 9,651 adults reported that Phialatop® measured atopy to common inhaled allergens (such as pollen, mold, domestic animals and dust mites) was significantly more common in young subjects versus older subjects (women 30.6% at ≤ 60 years, 18.1% at 60+ years, p<0.001, and men 36.4% at ≤ 60 years and 26.6% at 60+ years p<0.001) [4].
Respiratory Infections
Rates of upper respiratory diseases such as colds and influenza are generally less frequent among older adults as compared to younger adults and children. A Netherlands study analyzed 541 cases of upper respiratory illness presenting to general practitioners [6]. Compared to a cohort of young adults (15-24 years), adults 60+ years had only a 30% less risk of getting an upper respiratory infection such as rhinovirus, coronavirus, or influenza A (95% CI 0.5-0.9), while children aged 1 to 4 years had a 220% greater risk of an acute upper respiratory infection (95% CI of 3.0-3.4) [6]. While upper respiratory infections are generally less common in the elderly, influenza morbidity and mortality rates are generally higher in the elderly [7].
Autoimmune Diseases
Older adults less frequently experience new onset of many autoimmune diseases than younger people do. A review of 40 autoimmune diseases reported that only 6 of the autoimmune diseases (giant cell arteritis, pernicious anemia, bullous pemphigoid, rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis, myasthenia gravis, fibrosing alevolitis) most commonly appear after age 50 years [8]. Many common autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever, multiple sclerosis, lupus, and sarcoidosis most commonly begin during childhood or early adult life [8]. On the other hand, a number of animal and human studies have suggested that aging related immune system changes may reduce self tolerance and increase risk of autoimmunity and inflammatory responses [9]. More research in needed to elucidate the effects of aging on autoimmunity and self tolerance and develop better prevention and treatment strategies.
Cancer
Rates of cancer seem to level off at about 80 to 85 years and then fall significantly during greater age. A US SEER Cancer Registry study reported that overall cancer incidence and death rates in both women and men were only about 50% as great at the age of 100 years as at 85 years [10]. Incidence rates from most of the 24 types of cancer examined in this study peaked somewhere between 75 and 90 years [10]. Many worldwide studies have reported that cancer rates decline by at least a factor of two to three by age 100 as compared to those or about 85 years of age [11]. Several autopsy studies have also reported that the presence of cancer at death is significantly lower in individuals aged 90 or more years at death [12,13]. Perhaps conditions are less favorable for cancer growth in adults over aged 85 years than in those aged 65 to 85 years.
Growth rates of many forms of cancer are significantly slower in older adults as compared to younger adults. A Netherlands study reported that median volume doubling times for primary female breast cancer was 80 days in women under 50 years of age (95% CI 44-147 days), 157 days in women aged 50 to 70 years (95% CI 121 to 204 days) and 188 days in women over aged 70 years (120 to 295 days) [14]. Autopsy studies have also reported significantly slower cancer primary growth rates and metastatic growth rates in adults who died at 90 years or older versus those who died younger [12]. Studies with laboratory mice have also reported slower growth rates of several types of cancers in older animals versus younger animals [15]. The slower growth rate of cancer in older patients may make these cancers easier to treat.
Circulatory
Natriuretic peptides are generally present in significantly higher levels during aging [16]. Natriuretic peptides have many potentially beneficial properties for heart failure patients, including opposition to vasoconstriction, sodium retention and antidiuretic effects [17,18]. A number of therapeutic approaches to increase atrial natriouretic peptides (ANP) are currently being investigated, including the use ANP analogues such as carpetide and the use of several inhibitors of neutral peptidase inhibitors which block breakdown of ANP [18].
Search for still more favorable developments during aging to share with other gerontologists and to exploit your current practice. Most of the favorable developments will require interdisciplinary studies: biochemistry, cell and molecular biology, pharmacology, etc. Further study of complex metabolic interactions is likely to make management better, improve the quality of the later years of life, and increase productivity.
Summary
Continuing with the last third of the 20th century, gerontology has been responsible for managing an increasing part of the population that now exceeds those of earlier generations surviving beyond the “retirement” age. Infirmities of the aged have received extensive study, but the favorable developments have almost completely escaped scrutiny.
Search, exposition, and utilization of the favorable developments, to supplement attention to damage, can improve the satisfaction and productivity of the elderly who are swiftly mounting among our population. Previous organization has become inadequate for changes in the composition of the community.
Study of such positive factors in aging can help scientists and clinicians better understand disease processes and develop better strategies to prolong health and productivity among the elderly.
References
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
 
Share This Article
   
 
   
 
Relevant Topics
Disc Addiction Psychiatry
Disc Adolescent Psychiatry
Disc Advanced Parkinson Treatment
Disc Advances in Age Test
Disc Advances in Alzheimers Therapy
Disc Age-Related Diseases
Disc Aging
Disc Aging Effects
Disc Aging Population
Disc Aging Research
Disc Aging Science
Disc Aging Skin
Disc Alzheimers Medicine
Disc Alzheimers Products & Market Analysis
Disc Alzheimers Symptoms
Disc Analytical Psychology
Disc Antiaging
Disc Antiaging Creams
Disc Antiaging Diet
Disc Antidepressants
Disc Anxiety
Disc Anxiety Disorders
Disc Behavioural Science
Disc Biological Psychiatry
Disc Biology of Aging
Disc Bipolar Psychosis
Disc Cellular Senescense
Disc Child Psychiatry
Disc Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Disc Childhood Anxiety
Disc Childhood Disorders
Disc Clinical Geriatrics
Disc Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine
Disc Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine
Disc Clinical Psychiatry
Disc Clinical Psychology
Disc Cognitive Disorders
Disc Community Psychiatry
Disc Criminal Psychology
Disc Critical Decisions in Emergency Medicine
Disc Critical Gerontology
Disc Cultural psychology
Disc Degenerative Disorders
Disc Dementia
Disc Depression
Disc Depression Therapy
Disc Depression and Aging
Disc Depressive Disorders
Disc Depressive Symptoms
Disc Diagnostic Alzheimer
Disc Dysthemia
Disc Educational Psychology
Disc Elder Care
Disc Emergency Care Nursing
Disc Emergency Care Practice
Disc Emergency Care and Medicine
Disc Emergency Critical Care
Disc Emergency Drugs
Disc Emergency Internal Medicine
Disc Emergency Medical Services
Disc Emergency Medical Services Market Analysis
Disc Emergency Medicine
Disc Emergency Medicine Primary Care
Disc Emergency Medicine Reports
Disc End of Life Care
Disc Endogenous Depression
Disc Ethics in Palliative
Disc Euthanasia
Disc Evidence Based Emergency Medicine
Disc Evolutionary psychology
Disc Family Caregiver
Disc First Aid Emergency Medicine
Disc Forensic Mental Health
Disc Geriatric
Disc Geriatric Care
Disc Geriatric Care Management
Disc Geriatric Depression Treatment
Disc Geriatric Emergency Medicine
Disc Geriatric Internal Medicine
Disc Geriatric Occupational Therapy
Disc Geriatric Palliative Care
Disc Geriatric Physical Therapy
Disc Geriatric Psychiatry
Disc Geriatrics
Disc Geriatrics or Geriatric Medicine
Disc Gerontological Nursing
Disc Gerontology
Disc Home Care
Disc Hospice Care
Disc Hospice Palliative Care
Disc Humanistic psychology
Disc Hyperactivity Disorders
Disc Longevity
Disc Love Psychology
Disc Major Depression
Disc Major Depression Treatment
Disc Manic Depression
Disc Medical psychology
Disc Mental Depression
Disc Mental Disorders
Disc Mental Health Facilities
Disc Mental Health Statistics
Disc Mental Health Treatment
Disc Mindfullness Based Therapy
Disc Minor Depression
Disc Mood Disorders
Disc Music psychology
Disc Neuro psychology
Disc Neurocognative Disorders (NCDs)
Disc Neuroimaging
Disc Neurotic Depression
Disc Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Disc Old Age Care
Disc Old Age Psychiatry
Disc Palliative Care
Disc Palliative Care Drugs
Disc Palliative Care Medications
Disc Palliative Care Nursing
Disc Palliative Care and Euthanasia
Disc Palliative Medicare
Disc Palliative Neurology
Disc Palliative Oncology
Disc Palliative Psychology
Disc Palliative Sedation
Disc Palliative Surgery
Disc Palliative Treatment
Disc Panic Attack
Disc Panic Attacks
Disc Parkinson
Disc Parkinsonism Diagnosis
Disc Parkinsonism Gene Therapy
Disc Parkinsonism Stages and Treatment
Disc Pediatric Palliative Care
Disc Positive Psychology
Disc Post Traumatic Disorders
Disc Postnatal Depression
Disc Postpartum Depression
Disc Posttraumatic Stress
Disc Prehospital Emergency Care
Disc Psychiatric Care
Disc Psychiatric Emergencies
Disc Psychiatric Rehabilitation
Disc Psychiatric Symptoms
Disc Psychiatric Treatment
Disc Psychiatry
Disc Psychiatry Diseases
Disc Psycho Trauma
Disc Psychological Disorders
Disc Psychotherapy
Disc Psychotic Depression
Disc Reactive Depression
Disc Reverse Pyschology
Disc Rural Emergency Medicine
Disc Schizophrenia
Disc Seasonal Affective Disorder
Disc Senescence
Disc Sleep Disorder
Disc Social Anxiety Disorder
Disc Social Psychiatry
Disc Social psychology
Disc Spritual Psychology
Disc Stem cell Treatment Parkinson
Disc Suicidal Behavior
Disc Suicidal Thoughts
Disc Suicidology
Disc Traumatic Stress
Disc Unipolar Depression
Disc Urgent Care
Disc Volunteer Palliative Care
Disc Yoga psychotherapy
 
Recommended Journals
Disc Emergency Medicine
Disc Clinical Depression
Disc Psychology & Psychotherapy
Disc Psychiatry
Disc Neuropsychiatry
Disc Mental Health & Psychiatry
Disc Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
Disc Emergency Mental Health
Disc Depression and Anxiety
Disc Palliative Care & Medicine
Disc Aging Science
  View More»
 
Recommended Conferences
Disc 2nd Mental Health and Human Resilience Conference
Jul 14-15, 2016 Cologne, Germany
Disc  Neurorehabilitation Conference
July 21-22, 2016 Brisbane, Australia
Disc 7th Neurologists Meeting on Neurology and Neurosurgery
August 22-24 2016 Vienna, Austria
Disc 3rd Psychiatry Meeting
Sept 07-09, 2016 Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Disc

5th Alzheimer’s disease and Dementia Conference
September 29-October 01, 2016 London, UK

Disc 2nd Depression, Anxiety and Stress Management Meeting
Nov 03-04, 2016 Valencia, Spain
 
Article Tools
Disc Export citation
Disc Share/Blog this article
 
Article usage
  Total views: 11124
  [From(publication date):
December-2013 - May 29, 2016]
  Breakdown by view type
  HTML page views : 7397
  PDF downloads :3727
 
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

 
OMICS International Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
 
 
OMICS International Conferences 2016-17
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings
 
 

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2016 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version