|Biofield; Particle size; X-ray diffraction; Silicon; Tin; Lead
|Electrical currents along with associated magnetic fields that are
complex and dynamic are present inside the bodies on many different
scales most likely due to dynamical processes such as heart and brain
function, blood and lymph flow, ion transport across cell membranes,
and other biologic processes . Bio field is a cumulative effect exerted
by these fields of human body on the surroundings. Typically, it may
act directly on molecular structures, changing the conformation of
molecules in functionally significant ways as well as may transfer bioinformation
through energy signals interacting directly with the energy
fields of life. At the balanced intersection of human and machine
adaptation is found the optimally functioning brain-computer interface
(BCI) . Experiments are reported of BCI controlling a robotic quad
copter in three-dimensional (3D) physical space using non invasive
scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in human subjects.
|Mr. Mahendra. K. Trivedi is known to transform the characteristics
of various living and non- living materials through bio field in his
physical presence as well as through his thought intervention. The
details of several scientific investigations and the results in the form of
original data are reported elsewhere [3-7].
|The present paper reports the changes in the characteristics of
powders of group IV elements silicon, tin and lead after exposure to
the bio field of Mr. Trivedi.
|Silicon (-325 mesh), tin (-325 mesh) and lead (-200 mesh) powders
of Alpha Aesar are used in the present investigation. The purity of the
powders is respectively 99.5, 99.8 and 99%. Both untreated and powders
exposed to thought intervention of Mr. Trivedi at different times
are characterized by Laser particle size analysis, Specific surface area
(BET), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA),
Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Simultaneous Differential
Thermal Analysis (SDTA).
|Average particle size and size distribution are obtained using
SYMPATEC HELOS-BF laser particle size analyzer with a detection
range of 0.1 to 875 μm (micro meters). From the particle size
distribution, d50 the average particle size and d99 (maximum particle
size below which 99% of particles are present) for the control (untreated
or as received powders) are taken as standard and are compared with
the results obtained on four separately treated powders. Surface area
determination is carried out using a SMART SORB 90 BET surface area
analyzer with a measuring range of 0.2 to 1000 m2/g.
|X-ray diffraction is carried out using a powder Phillips, Holland
PW 1710 XRD system. A copper anode with nickel filter is used. The
wavelength of the radiation is 1.54056 Å (10-10 m or 10-8 Cm). The data
is obtained in the form of 2θ vs. Intensity chart as well as a detailed table
containing 2θ°, d value Å, peak width 2θ°, peak intensity counts, relative
Intensity %, etc. The ‘d’ values are compared with standard JCPDS data
base and the Miller Indices h, k and l for various 2θ° values are noted.
The data are then analyzed using PowderX software to obtain lattice
parameters and unit cell volume.
|Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and simultaneous differential
thermal analysis (SDTA) combined analyses are carried for the tin and
lead powders from room temperature to 400°C at a heating rate of
5°C/min in air. While for silicon powder thermo gravimetric analysis
(TGA) and differential thermal analysis (SDTA) combined analysis are carried out from room temperature to 1450°C at a heating rate of 40°C/min in air. Scanning Electron microscopy of untreated and treated
powders is carried out using a JEOL JSM-6360 instrument.
|Particle size and size distribution
|Particle size and particle size distribution was determined by laser
particle size analyzer. From these data the average particle size d50, d10
and d99 the sizes below which 10 percent and 99 percent of particles are
present respectively are noted for both untreated and samples treated
for 11, 86, 91 and 109 days and given in Table 1. To understand whether
coarser, or finer particles have changed on treatment, percent particles
finer than average particle size in treated powders were evaluated using
the relation [100*(d50-d10)/d10]. Similarly percent particles coarser
than average particle size in treated powders were evaluated using the
relation [100*(d99-d50)/d50]. These parameters are plotted as function of
time ‘t’ in number of days after treatment and shown in Figure 1. Lead
powder on treatment showed a decrease in percent of coarse as well as
fine particles. Coarse tin particles showed an initial percent decrease
followed by increase on prolonged treatment, while finer tin particles
showed slight increase as well as decrease. Both coarse and fine silicon
particles did not show significant changes in size on treatment.
|Specific surface area
|The specific surface areas of both untreated and treated powders as
determined by BET technique are given in Table 2. Rationalization of
the parameter was done by computing the percent change in specific
surface area between untreated and treated powders Δs% = 100*(st-s0)/s0. The specific surface area of treated tin powders did not show any
change while that of silicon and lead powders showed increase.
|Scanning electron microscopy
|The powders were examined in a Scanning Electron Microscope
(SEM). SEM pictures of both untreated and treated powders respectively
are shown in Figure 2. It is evident that on treatment a reduction in size
of lead particles had occurred while there was no significant change in
size of tin particles. Internal boundaries where the particles got welded
can be noticed in large particles.
|What must be happening to cause these significant changes in
particle size and surface area? In order to find a probable cause the
powders were examined by x ray diffraction.
|Data analysis: Obtained ‘d’ values from the x-ray spectra were
compared with standard JCPDS data base and the Miller Indices h, k
and l for various 2θ° values were noted. The data were then analyzed
using PowderX software to obtain lattice parameters and unit cell
|The crystallite size was calculated using the formula,
|Crystallite size = k λ/ b Cos θ
|where, λ is the wavelength of x-radiation used (1.54056 × 10-10 m),
‘b’ is the peak width at half height, and k is the equipment constant with
a value 0.94. The obtained crystallite size will be in nano meters or 10-9
m. Crystallite size in metals can correspond to sub grain size when the
grain size is equivalent to single crystal size. It is also possible that some
part of the observed X-ray peak width could be due to the instrument
broadening (already corrected) while the other part could be due to the
strain in the crystal lattice.
|The change between various powders was assessed by using relative
parameters as follows:
|Percent change in lattice parameter is the ratio of difference in the
values between untreated and treated powders to the value of untreated
powders expressed as per cent. Typically for the parameter ‘a’ this is
equal to 100*(Δa/ac) where Δa=(at- ac)/ac. This is also known as strain,
and, when multiplied with the elastic modulus gives the force applied
on the atoms. When the force is compressive the change is negative
while a positive value indicates a stretching or tensile force. In a similar
manner the percent change in unit cell volume and crystallite sizes
|The weight of atom was computed from the sum of all electrons,
protons and neutrons.
|Weight of atom=number of protons×weight of proton+number of
neutrons×weight of neutron+number of electrons × weight of electron
|Since the number of atoms per unit cell of the crystal was known,
the weight of the unit cell was computed. The latter divided by the volume of the unit cell gives the theoretical density. Since the volume
of unit cell of the powder changes on treatment, the density as well as
weight of atom will also change.
|The weight of the atom when multiplied by the Avogadro’s number
(6.023×1023) gives the atomic weight (M) or the weight of a gram atom of
the substance. The ratio difference in atomic weight between untreated
and treated samples to the atomic weight of untreated sample was then
expressed as per cent change in atomic weight. Typically this is same
as 100×(ΔM/Mc) where ΔM=(Mt-Mc)/Mc. This value also represents
the percent change in sum of weights of protons and neutrons in the
|The percent change in positive charge per unit volume of the atom
was computed as follows;
|The atomic radius was obtained by dividing the lattice parameter
‘a’ with 2.
|r = a/2
|Then the volume of the atom was obtained by assuming it to be
spherical V = 4πr3/3
|The positive charge per unit volume of the atom was computed by
multiplying the number of protons (p) in the atom with elementary
charge 1.6×10-19 coulombs and then by dividing with the volume of
the atom. The percent change in positive charge per unit volume ΔZ
between untreated and treated powders was then obtained as
|ΔZ% = 100(Zt+-Zc+)/Zc+
|Results of XRD: The results of XRD obtained after data analysis are given in Tables 3a-3d. Variation in percent change in unit cell
volume and percent change in atomic weight with number of days after
treatment (Table 3a, 3c and Figure 3) showed similar behavior for all
the powders. An initial increase followed by decrease in case of lead
powders, while the reverse this initial decrease followed by increase in
case of silicon and tin powders. Percent nuclear charge per unit volume
of atom showed exactly opposite variation. An initial decrease followed
by increase in case of lead powders, and initial increase followed by
decrease in case of silicon and tin powders (Figure 4). The variation
in crystallite size is shown in Figure 5. Lead powder showed an initial
decrease followed by increase. Silicon powders showed a continuous
decrease followed by a steady crystallite size corresponding to that
exhibited by untreated powders. Tin powders showed a decrease
followed by increase reaching a steady state crystallite size.
|Results of thermal analysis: Change in thermal characteristics
of treated lead and tin powders in nitrogen atmosphere and air were
studied using DSC and SDTA respectively (Table 4 and 5). DSC
results indicated no significant change in melting point. The latent
heat of fusion (ΔH) in treated lead and tin powders had decreased
up to a maximum of 11.85 and 20.71%. The percent change in ΔH
between untreated and treated powders is shown in Figure 6. The
percent change in mass between the initial powders and the powders
at respective melting points (Figure 7) as well as the percent change in
equivalent ΔH (as measured by SDTA in air) between untreated and
treated powders is shown in Figure 8. The mass at melting point in both
lead and tin powders had decreased up to 7.23 and 5.78% respectively
indicating vaporization. The equivalent latent heat of fusion in treated
lead and tin powders had decreased up to a maximum of 43.07 and 31.17% respectively. The decrease in latent heat of fusion in all the
treated powders without significant change in melting temperature
suggests that the powders are already in a high energy state prior to
|Particle can be single crystals or poly crystalline. In the later case
the grain boundaries (boundaries between adjacent single crystals) are the structural weak points and can fracture under stress reducing the
particle size. However, the fracture of particles creates fresh surfaces
which are amenable for cold welding of such surfaces increasing the
particle size. Thus changes in particle size are alternately attributed to
fracture, creation of fresh particle surfaces and welding. This kind of
behavior is exhibited by tin particles. Silicon being covalent bonded
is strong and showed least deformation of coarse particles while
deformation along cleavage planes may have contributed to increase in size of fine particles. Lead being the weakest material showed decrease
in size of both fine and coarse particles.
|These results are also in agreement with increased surface area.
The existence of internal particle boundaries and fracturing of coarse
particles into finer ones will certainly increase the surface as observed.
Scanning electron micrographs of treated lead powder showed
fractured particles and internal boundaries that may have contributed
to increased surface area.
|X-ray diffraction of treated silicon and tine powders showed
decreased unit cell volume and atomic weight while it increased the
percent change in nuclear charge per unit volume of atom. Decrease in
nuclear charge per unit volume indicates increase in atomic volume or
decrease in number of positively charged protons. This reduced charge
will attract the neighbouring atoms with lesser force thus increasing the
unit cell and crystallite size as was observed in the present experiments.
The interesting result observed in the present experiments is that the
percent change in atomic weight is inversely proportional to percent
change in nuclear charge per unit volume of atom and vice versa. This is
only possible if protons are converted to neutrons and vice versa. That
is bio energy mediates energy conversion to mass and mass conversion
to energy through interchange of protons and neutrons.
|Bio field exerted by Mr. Trivedi on aluminium metal powders had
caused the following effects:
|1. Changes in particle size of powders on treatment are alternately
attributed to fracture, creation of fresh particle surfaces and
|2. The specific surface area of the treated powders had increased
with increase in number of days after treatment which was also
consistent with decreased percent of coarser particles.
|3. Scanning electron microscopy indicated internal boundaries
and angular particles thus justifying the observed decrease in
|4. Results of X-ray diffraction had showed that treatment with bio
field had decreased the percent change in both unit cell volume
and atomic weight while it increased the percent change in nuclear charge per unit volume of atom. These results suggest
that bio energy had mediated energy conversion to mass and
mass conversion to energy through interchange of protons and
neutrons in the nucleus.
|5. Thermal analysis of the tin and lead powders indicated a
decrease in latent heat of fusion in all the treated powders
without significant change in melting temperature, suggesting
that the powders were already in a high energy state prior to
|We thank the staff of various laboratories for conducting various characterization
experiments. We thank Dr. Cheng Dong of NLSC, Institute of Physics, and Chinese
academy of Sciences for permitting us to use PowderX software for analyzing XRD
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