|It is known that electrical currents along with associated magnetic
fields are present in human bodies. These are complex and dynamic
mostly likely due to dynamical processes such as heart and brain
function, blood and lymph flow, ion transport across cell membranes,
and other biologic processes on many different scales . Bio field
is a cumulative effect exerted by these fields of human body on the
surroundings. Typically, it may act directly on molecular structures,
changing the conformation of molecules in functionally significant
ways as well as may transfer bio-information through energy signals
interacting directly with the energy fields of life.
|Mr. Mahendra. K. Trivedi is known to transform the characteristics
of various living and non living materials through bio field in his
physical presence as well as through thought intervention. The details
of several scientific investigations and the results in the form of original
data are reported elsewhere [2-5].
|The present paper reports the changes in the characteristics of
Vanadium V Oxide powder after exposure to the bio field of Mr.
|Materials and Methods
|Vanadium pentoxide,Sigma Aldrich, 98+% purity (here afterwards
referred to as vanadium oxide) powders untreated (control) and
treated by thought intervention through bio field were subsequently
characterized by Laser particle size analyser, BET surface area, Thermal
analysis and X-ray diffraction. These were then compared and the
changes in characteristics after treatment were determined.
|Particle size distribution by laser diffraction
|Typical data obtained using laser diffraction is given in table 1.The
experiments were carried out for control (day1) and treated powders
after 11, 85, 92 and 110 days respectively. Average particle size d50 and size exhibited by 99% of the powder
particles d99 between treated and control powders were noted from
the laser diffraction data tables. These values are given for both control
and treated samples in table 2. The latter also gives the percent change in d50 and d99 between various treated and control samples figure 1.
|% change in d50 size=100×(d50 treated–d50 control)/d50 control
|% change in d99 size=100×(d99 treated–d99control)/d99 control
|Bet surface area
|This is a well-known technique of physical adsorption of helium
gas molecules on a solid surface. From the volume of gas adsorbed on a
given mass of powder the specific surface area can be computed.
|When a powder particle possesses high internal energy/rough and
irregular surfaces/ fine size it exhibits a large BET surface area expressed
in m2/g. A high surface area powder is chemically and thermally very
reactive and can be used as catalysts, paints, pharmaceuticals, etc.
|% change in surface area=100×(surface area treated–surface area
control)/surface area control
|Surface areas had decreased by 1.41, 4.11 and 7.22% as the number
of days after treatment changed to 14, 95 and 109 respectively. The
decrease may be due to observed decrease in fine particles d50 and
increase in coarse particles d99 as shown in figure 2.
|Scanning electron microscopy
|Both control and after 20 days treated Vanadium oxide particles
when examined in a scanning electron microscope did not show
significant changes (Table 3). Rather both the powders showed
agglomerated geometric shapes with particle sizes in the range 0.5-150
micro meters and highly agglomerated intra particle boundaries (Table
4 and Figure 3).
|Thermo gravimetric analysis
|Mettler’s simultaneous Thermo gravimetric analysis and
Differential Thermo gravimetric analysis (combined TGA and DTG)
unit was used for the experiments. The heating range and heating rate
employed were respectively Room temperature to 900° Celsius and 10°
Celsius/minute in Nitrogen atmosphere. From table 5 it can be noticed
that the peak temperature in treated vanadium oxide after 57 days had
increased by 9.9% from 666.87°C to 732.62°C. The decrease in mass of
the sample was not found to be significant.
|X-ray Diffraction (XRD) technique is sensitive at the atomic and
crystal structure level. X-rays incident upon a material are diffracted by
the atoms in various crystal planes and the wavelength and intensity of
diffraction beams are monitored. The results are obtained in the form
of a table as well as a chart of intensity of the spectral peaks on y axis
and 2θ (twice the diffracted angle) on the x axis
|(Bragg’s law states that for conditions of x-ray diffraction 2d sin
θ=n λ, where λ is the wavelength of the incident x-rays, θ is the angle of
diffraction and n is the order of spectrum usually taken to be 1).
|The data obtained are compared with standard database of powder
diffraction patterns of The International Centre for Diffraction Data
(ICDD) to identify the Miller indices (the numbers that indicate the
plane inside a crystal on which the diffraction takes place).
|Normally X-ray diffraction is used to identify the crystal lattice,
compute the lattice parameters (a, b and c which represent the distance
between atoms on geometrical sides of a unit cell of a crystal, and, α,
β and γ the angles between the sides), concentration (assumed to be
proportional to the intensity of the strongest peak corresponding to
the substance in question), and average crystallite size (the size of a
number of unit cells with orientations same in all three dimensions.
This is also known as the size of the single crystal and can be obtained
from the width of the peak at half maximum height).
|X-ray diffraction in the present experiments is used to evaluate
apart from the usual parameters, the parameters that are related
to energy changes with in and between atoms, such as the effective
nuclear charge on the atom, the change in atomic weight the number
of neutrons and protons etc.
|A summary of the data obtained after analysis is given in the Table
5. The data is obtained for control sample (day 1) and samples treated
with biofield after 28, 104, 124 and 139 days.
|Both the control and treated samples are analysed using powder
Phillips, Holland PW 1710 XRD system. A copper anode with nickel
filter was used. The wavelength of the radiation is 1.54056 Å (10-10 m
or 10-8 cm).
|The data is obtained in the form of 2θ Vs Intensity chart as well as
a detailed table containing 2θ, d value Å, peak width 2θ, peak intensity
counts, relative Intensity %, etc. The data was then analysed using
PowderX software to obtain lattice parameters and unit cell volume.
|θ0 values are converted from degrees to radians by multiplying with
π/ 180 or with 0.0175. Similarly the peak width at half maximum is also
converted to radians by multiplying with 0.0175. Then the crystallite
size=kλ/bCos θ, where λ is the wavelength of x-radiation used and is
1.54056×10-10m and k is the equipment constant with a value 0.94. The
obtained crystallite size will be in nano meters or 10-9 meters.
|Crystallite size in most ceramics can correspond to size of single
crystal (arrangement of repetitive number of unit cells with same
planar orientation). In metals, on the other hand crystallite size can
also correspond to sub grain size in the single crystal.
|Percent change in lattice parameter
|It is the ratio of difference in lattice parameter of control and treated
samples to the parameter of control sample expressed as percent.
|Typically for the lattice parameter ‘a’ this is equal to100×(Δa/ac),
|Also known as strain, when multiplied with the elastic modulus it
gives the force applied on the atoms. When the force is compressive
the change is negative while a positive value indicates a stretching or
|The ratio difference in atomic weight between control and treated
samples to the atomic weight of control sample is expressed as per cent
change in atomic weight.
|100×(ΔM/Mc) where ΔM=(Mt- Mc)/Mc.
|This value also represents the percent change in sum of protons
and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom (Figure 4 and 5).
|From table 5 it was found that lattice parameter and unit cell
volume increased with a resulting decrease in density (mass of unit
cell/volume of unit cell). The crystallite size (size of single crystal
grain) decreased indicating that the stresses due to expansion in unit
cells might have caused fracture at weaker planes in the single crystal.
Decrease in charge in the atom indicates that energy is wasconverted to
mass as shown by increase in atomic weight.
|• Laser diffraction had indicated that both the average particle size d59 and d99 showed an increase immediately after bio
field treatment mostly due to agglomeration of particles. After
80 days of treatment the agglomerates of fine particles were
broken while coarse particles further increased in size.
|• As the number of days after bio field treatment changed from
14 through 95 to109, the surface area had decreased by 1.41,
4.11 and 7.22% respectively. The decrease may be due to
observed decrease in fine particles d50 and increase in coarse
|• The peak temperature in bio field treated vanadium oxide after
57 days had increased by 9.9% from 666.87C to 732.62C. The
decrease in mass of the sample was not found to be significant.
|• Analysis of x–ray diffraction data led to the following inferences;
treatment with bio field initially decreased the Lattice
parameter, unit cell volume, molecular weight and crystallite
size, while the density had increased. Exactly reverse had
occurred after 124 days of treatment. The decreased crystallite
size indicates the presence of stresses due to expansion in unit
cells which may have caused fracture at weaker planes in the
single crystal, and decreased molecular weight indicates that
mass is converted to energy.
|We thank Mr. Harish Shettigar for his active help, and the staff of various
laboratories for conducting various characterization experiments. We also thank
Dr. Cheng Dong of NLSC, Institute of Physics, and Chinese academy of Sciences
for permitting us to use PowderX software for analysing XRD results.
- Rubik B, Becker RO, Flower RG, Hazlewood CF, Liboff AR, et al. Bioelectromagnetics Applications in Medicine. Alternative Medicine: Expanding Medical Horizons, A Report to the National Institutes of Health on Alternative Medical Systems and Practices in the United States.
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- Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RR (2009) Effect of superconsciousness external energy on atomic, crystalline and powder characteristics of carbon allotrope powders. Mater Res Innov 13: 473-480.