ISSN: 2165-7890
Autism-Open Access
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business
 

Exercise Alleviates Autism Spectrum Disorder Deficits

Trevor Archer*
University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, SE45030 Gothenburg, Sweden
Corresponding Author : Trevor Archer
University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology
SE45030 Gothenburg, Sweden
Tel: 46317864694
E-mail: trevor.archer@psy.gu.se
Received: June 22, 2015; Accepted: August 15, 2015; Published: August 22, 2015
Citation: Archer T (2015) Exercise Alleviates Autism Spectrum Disorder Deficits. Autism Open Access 5:146. doi: 10.4172/2165-7890.1000146
Copyright: © 2015 Archer T. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Related article at Pubmed, Scholar Google

Visit for more related articles at Autism-Open Access

Introduction

Amongst other behavioral deficits, children afflicted with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) present an array of motor skill impairments [1-3]. These deficits include problems the planning and performance of goal-directed behaviors [4,5]. Simermeyer and Ketcham (2015) have studied aspects of motor planning ability in ASD-diagnosed children (aged 5-13 years) through application of a method consisting of fine and gross motor tasks and postural components through altering sensory input [6]. They observed that ASD children expressed greater variability in hand selection during the “dial-turning task” and a tendency to plan movements that were not in accordance with ‘end-state comfort’. These children displayed a reduced ability to imitate movements correctly, presented lower scores for both the drawing and stickler tasks, and required longer time to ‘bead the bracelet’ than the comparison control group. The notion of end-state comfort refers to planning movements that allow individuals to attain comfort at task completion despite an initial phase of no-comfort/discomfort [7]. In children presenting normal development, a near completion of end-state performance is reached by 10 years-of-age [8]. Thus, the impairments by ASD children described by Simermeyer and Ketcham (2015) imply a serious disadvantage. The purpose of this treatise is to examine the notion of physical exercise as intervention to facilitate a positive developmental trajectory, as has been observed both under normal conditions and those associated with developmental disturbance, e.g. ADHD [9-14]. Motor skills difficulties, such as balance, posture and gait and movement speed, are present in children diagnosed with ASD [15,16]. Some of the behaviors associated with ASD stereotypical, repetitive and counterproductive. Episodes of physical exercise and/or activity were found to reduce the stereotypies and increase positive behaviors, such as time spent on tasks [17,18]. Other deficits in ASD involve alterations in the neurophysiological response to stress, including impairments in heart rate adaptation to challenges set by attentional demands and social encounters [19-21]. In circumstances of physical exertion or stress that occur during exercise it has been observed repeatedly that individuals (children) presenting ASD generally displayed lowered physiologic, i.e., heart rate, adaptations [22-24]. Pace and Bricout (2015) have shown that in comparison with a group of healthy children, a group of ASD children (aged 10 +1.45 years) evidenced lowered heart rate: at pre-test, during physical evaluation and at maximal exertion [25]. The ASD children displayed also a higher number of falls on the balance test, lower force on the handgrip test, lower levels of performance on the plate tapping test, vertical and broad jump tests, the Euro fit sit-up test and the test of reactive speed. They required too a greater length of time to achieve the motor educational course. They concluded that the ASD children in the sample may be characterized by motor impairments, lower daily skills abilities, and deficits in cardiac adaptation to physical exertion. Nevertheless, the consensus of the findings implied that physical activity programs initiated early ought to be maintained into adulthood thereby ensuring against cardiovascular risks associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Perinatal administration of the anti-epileptic drug, valproic acid, has been applied as a neurobehavioral model of autism in rodents [26]. It induces symptoms of autism that involve social and cognitive deficits and repetitive behaviors, suppresses the number of BrdU-positive (5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine-positive) cells, linked to reelin, in the hippocampus induced autistic-like behavior in male rats through administration of valproic acid (400 mg/kg) on postnatal day 14 [27-29]. They were assigned to either exercise or sedentary groups from postnatal day 28 onwards for four weeks. Treadmill exercise was maintained five times/week during a 30 min session each day. The treadmill exercise load was: 1st five-min period at a speed of 2 meters/min, 2nd five-min period 5 meters/min, and 8 meters/min over the final 20 min. In tests of social behavior, the heightened aggressive behavior of valproate-injected rats was reduced by the treadmill exercise regime concurrent with improved cognitive performance in an eight-arm, radial arm maze. Postnatal valproic acid reduced reelin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that regulates neuronal migration and positioning during brain development, in the hippocampus, whereas, the treadmill running intervention increased reelin expression in the valproate-treated rats. The utility of animal models of ASD needs to be exploited more completely since rodents adapt rapidly to treadmill type running exercise interventions thereby facilitating the examination of a multiple of symptom phenotypes and biomarkers of disorder [30]. Despite the promise of exercise intervention for the alleviation of ASD symptoms, several conditions require fulfillment for effective improvements to be obtained; these include:

(i) The notion of individual participation and compliance in physical exercise programmes.

(ii) The pervading presence of issues concerning balance impairments which require taylor-made exercise forms, and

(iii) The reality of auditory hypersensitivity which complicates the choice of exercise regimes.

A paucity of intervention studies have concentrated upon the notion of ‘individual participation’. Adair et al., (2015) have shown that individually-tailored, educational and mentoring programmes enhanced participation outcomes, particularly with regard to exercise regimes wherein in cases where participation was only a secondary outcome, little or no effect was registered [31]. Balance deficits are present in ASD and are exacerbated by alterations of stance yet these deficits were unrelated to symptom severity when age-of-subject was taken into account, the complications associated with interventions are under study [32,33]. Finally, in ASD children, auditory modality hypersensitivity presents an important feature of disability. The “listening project protocol” offers a new intervention, a form of ‘neural exercise’ that applies acoustic stimulation to recruit the neural regulation of the middle ear muscles [34]. Listening project protocol was hypothesized to reduce auditory hypersensitivities by increasing the neural tone to the middle ear muscles to functionally dampen competing sounds in frequencies lower than human speech. Their experimental trials demonstrated that listening project protocol, when contrasted to control conditions, selectively reduced auditory hypersensitivities. These findings are consistent with the polyvagal theory, which emphasizes the role of the middle ear muscles in social communication.

Despite the established genetic and neuroimmune connections, environmental factors, such as diet and gastrointestinal complications, are being taken into account increasingly [35-38]. The notion of “plural autisms” affecting the expressions of developmental trajectories focuses attention on influences of diet. For example, it appears that differing responses to the use of a gluten- and casein-free diet, defined as best- and non-response, has combined with some progress on determining the underlying genetic and biological correlates potentially related to such dietary elements [39]. Currais et al. have shown that the dietary glycemic index induces a marked impact upon ASD the phenotype [40]. In BTBR mice, a model of ASD, they found that the diet modulated plasma metabolites, neuroinflammation, and brain markers of neurogenesis to mimic the human condition. Puig-Alcaraz, et al. measured homocysteine, glutathione, methionine, and 3-nitrotyrosine in the urine of ASD children. They observed the increase in homocysteine was directly related to the severity of the communication skills deficits but the deficits in socialization skills or the preponderance of repetitive/restricted behaviors [41]. In an examination of several elements of dietary supplements in 56% of children presenting ASD, Stewart et al. found deficiencies in vitamin D and calcium; supplementation caused excess vitamin A, folate, and zinc, as well as vitamin C and copper (2–3 years), and manganese and copper (4–8 years) [42]. Thus, the dangers of dietary supplement ought to be observed.
References











































Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
 
Share This Article
   
 
   
 
Relevant Topics
Disc
Disc ADHD
Disc Addiction Psychiatry
Disc Addiction Recovery
Disc Adolescent Psychiatry
Disc Adolescent behaviour
Disc Advances in autism diagnosis
Disc Alcohol Addiction
Disc Alcohol Addiction Treatment
Disc Alcohol Rehabilitation
Disc Amphetamine Addiction
Disc Amphetamine-Related Disorders
Disc Analytical Psychology
Disc Anticonvulsants
Disc Anxiety
Disc Anxiety Disorders
Disc Applied Psychology
Disc Applied behaviour analysis
Disc Asperger's syndrome
Disc Aura
Disc Autism in children
Disc Autism theraphy
Disc Behavioural Science
Disc Biological Psychiatry
Disc Bipolar Affective
Disc Bipolar Affective Disorders
Disc Bipolar Psychosis
Disc Brain Aneurysm
Disc Brain Epilepsy
Disc Brain Injury Rehabilitation
Disc Brain Mapping
Disc Brain Rehabilitation
Disc Brain Scan
Disc Brain Stem Cell Therapy
Disc Brain Stroke
Disc Brain Structure and Function
Disc Brain Trauma/ Injury
Disc Brain Tumor
Disc CNS and Neurological Disorders
Disc Cerebral Palsy
Disc Child Psychiatry
Disc Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Disc Child autism
Disc Child behavior
Disc Child development
Disc Childhood Anxiety
Disc Childhood Disorders
Disc Childhood Epilepsy
Disc Children thinking
Disc Chronic Health Conditions
Disc Clinical Epilepsy
Disc Clinical Psychiatry
Disc Clinical Psychology
Disc Cocaine Addiction
Disc Cocaine-Related Disorders
Disc Cognition
Disc Cognitive Disorders
Disc Cognitive Mental Illness
Disc Cognitive Psychology Research
Disc Cognitive Science
Disc Cognitive psychology
Disc Coma
Disc Community Psychiatry
Disc Computer Addiction Research
Disc Convulsion
Disc Criminal Psychology
Disc Cultural psychology
Disc Dementia
Disc Depression
Disc Depression and Aging
Disc Depressive Disorders
Disc Diagnosis of Autism
Disc Drug Addiction Treatment
Disc Drug Rehabilitation
Disc DrugAddiction
Disc Dysthemia
Disc Educational Psychology
Disc Educational and developmental psychology
Disc Electroencephalography
Disc Encephalitis
Disc Epilepsy
Disc Epilepsy - Neurological disorder
Disc Epilepsy Syndromes
Disc Epilepsy neurorehabilitation
Disc Evolutionary psychology
Disc Experimental Neurology
Disc Facts About Alcoholism
Disc Focal Epilepsy
Disc Food Addiction Research
Disc Frontal Lobe Epilepsy
Disc Games psychology
Disc Germ cell tumours
Disc Health Promotion
Disc Health-Related Quality of Life
Disc Heroin Addiction Treatment
Disc Hippocampus
Disc Holistic Addiction Treatment
Disc Hospital-Addiction Syndrome
Disc Humanistic psychology
Disc Hydrocephalus
Disc Hypothalamus
Disc Intellectual Disability
Disc Ischemic Stroke
Disc Limbic System
Disc Love Psychology
Disc Lyme
Disc Manic Despondency
Disc Medical Education
Disc Medical Rehabilitation
Disc Medical psychology
Disc Medicare
Disc Mental Disorder
Disc Mental Health Illiteracy
Disc Mental Health Morbidity
Disc Mental Health Needs
Disc Mental Health Services
Disc Mental health
Disc Mindfullness Based Therapy
Disc Mood Disorder
Disc Mood Disorders
Disc Morphine Addiction
Disc Multiple Sclerosis
Disc Munchausen Syndrome
Disc Music psychology
Disc Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
Disc Nerve Injury
Disc Neural Model
Disc Neuro Rehabilitation
Disc Neuro psychology
Disc Neurocognative Disorders (NCDs)
Disc Neurodegenerative Disorders
Disc Neuroimaging
Disc Neurointensive Care
Disc Neurological Disabilities
Disc Neurological Physiotherapy
Disc Neurological Rehabilitation
Disc Neurological disorders
Disc Neuromuscular Disorders
Disc Neuronal processing
Disc Neurooptometric Rehabilitation
Disc Neuropathy
Disc Neuropsychiatry
Disc Neurorehabilitation Psychotherapy
Disc Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Disc Neurosurgery
Disc Neurosurgical Emergencies
Disc Nocturnal Epilepsy
Disc Nutritional Suitability
Disc Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Disc Occupation therapy for autism
Disc OccupationalTherapy
Disc Opioid-Related Disorders
Disc Panayiotopoulos Syndrome
Disc Panic Attacks
Disc Parkinson's Disease
Disc Pathophysiology
Disc Pediatric Epilepsy
Disc Photosensitive Epilepsy
Disc Pituitary
Disc Positive Psychology
Disc Post Traumatic Disorders
Disc Postictal State
Disc Posttraumatic Stress
Disc Pseudohypertrophic Myopathy
Disc Psychiatric Symptoms
Disc Psychiatric Treatment
Disc Psychiatry
Disc Psychiatry Diseases
Disc Psycho Trauma
Disc Psychotherapy
Disc Repetitive Behaviours in Autism
Disc Rett syndrome
Disc Reverse Pyschology
Disc Rolandic Epilepsy
Disc Schizophrenia
Disc Schizophrenia- Psychotic disorder
Disc School psychology
Disc School psychology practice
Disc Seizure
Disc Seizure Disorder
Disc Seizure Medications
Disc Shaking Palsy
Disc Social Anxiety Disorder
Disc Social Psychiatry
Disc Social Stigma
Disc Social cognitive psychology
Disc Social communication
Disc Social psychology
Disc Spinal Cord
Disc Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Disc Spritual Psychology
Disc Stress Disorder
Disc Stroke Disorder
Disc StrokeRehabilitation
Disc Substance-Related Disorders
Disc Suicidal Behavior
Disc Suicidal Thoughts
Disc Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Disc The Autistic Brain
Disc Traumatic Brain Injury
Disc Treatment Effects
Disc Vaccines and autism
Disc Yoga psychotherapy
 
Recommended Journals
Disc Addiction Journal
Disc Rehabilitation Journal
Disc Cognitive Psychology Journal
Disc Epilepsy Journal
Disc Depression Journal
Disc Mental Disorders Journal
Disc Behavioural Journal
Disc Psychology Journal
Disc Psychiatry Journal
Disc Neurorehabilitation Journal
Disc Neurology Journal
Disc Brain Journal
Disc Neurophysiology Journal
  View More»
 
Recommended Conferences
Disc

Neurorehabilitation Conference
July 21-22, 2016 Brisbane, Australia

Disc 2nd Adolescent Medicine & Child Psychology Conference
August 29- 31, 2016 Atlanta, USA
Disc Pediatric Neurology Conference
September 29-Oct 1, 2016 Valencia, Spain
Disc  5th Alzheimer’s disease and Dementia Conference
September 29-October 01, 2016 London, UK
 
Article Tools
Disc Export citation
Disc Share/Blog this article
 
Article usage
  Total views: 11177
  [From(publication date):
September-2015 - Jun 29, 2016]
  Breakdown by view type
  HTML page views : 7442
  PDF downloads :3735
 
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

 
OMICS International Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
 
 
OMICS International Conferences 2016-17
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings
 
 

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsinc.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2016 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version