ISSN: 2167-0846

Journal of Pain & Relief
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Editorial Board

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Editor-in-Chief
Angelo Lavano
University Hospital of Germaneto
Italy

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Geoffrey Burnstock
University College London
UK

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Robert L Barkin
Rush University Medical College
USA

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About the Journal

Journal of Pain & Relief covers information regarding types of distressing symptoms during treatment and healing. It is a peer reviewed medical journal that includes a wide range of topics in this fields such as Pain, Depression, Anesthesia, Nociceptive Pain, Neuropathic Pain, Chronic Back pain, Antidepressants and Antiepileptic drugs, Traumatology, Post-Operative Pain, Hypnosis and creates a platform for the authors to contribute towards the journal and the editorial office promises to peer review the submitted manuscripts to ensure quality.

Journal of Pain & Relief is a peer reviewed journal, serving the International Scientific Community using Editorial Manager System for online manuscript submission, review and tracking. Editorial board members of the Journal of Pain & Relief or outside experts review manuscripts; at least two independent reviewer’s approval followed by the editor is required for the acceptance of any citable manuscript.

Journal of Pain & Relief is supporting “2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pain Medicine” to be held during May 16-18, 2016 San Antonio, USA, with the theme “Pain assessment and its management for improvement of the quality of life”

Pain Medicine

Pain Medicine is a discipline within the field of medicine that is concerned with the prevention of pain, and the evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation of persons in pain.

The specialty of Pain Medicine, or Algiatry, is a discipline within the field of medicine that is concerned with the prevention of pain, and the evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation of persons in pain. Some conditions may have pain and associated symptoms arising from a discrete cause, such as postoperative pain or pain associated with a malignancy, or may be conditions in which pain constitutes the primary problem, such as neuropathic pains or headaches.

Pain Medicine specialists typically formulate comprehensive treatment plans, which consider the patients' cultural contexts, as well as the special needs of the pediatric and geriatric populations. Evaluation techniques include interpretation of historical data; review of previous laboratory, imaging, and electrodiagnostic studies; assessment of behavioral, social, occupational, and avocational issues; and interview and examination of the patient by the pain specialist.

Related Journal of Pain Medicine

Pain medicine Journal, pain medicine, Journal of Pain & Relief, Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research, Journal of Pain, Molecular Pain, Open Pain Journal, Pain Research and Management

Chronic Back Pain

Chronic pain is any pain that lasts for more than three months. Chronic pain may arise from an initial injury, such as a back sprain, or there may be an ongoing cause, such as illness. However, there may also be no clear cause. Other health problems, such as fatigue, sleep disturbance, decreased appetite, and mood changes, often accompany chronic pain. Chronic pain may limit a person’s movements, which can reduce flexibility, strength, and stamina. This difficulty in carrying out important and enjoyable activities can lead to disability and despair.

Low back pain is considered to be chronic if it has been present for longer than three months. Chronic low back pain may originate from an injury, disease or stresses on different structures of the body. The type of pain may vary greatly and may be felt as bone pain, nerve pain or muscle pain. The sensation of pain may also vary. For instance, pain may be aching, burning, stabbing or tingling, sharp or dull, and well-defined or vague. The intensity may range from mild to severe.

Related Journals of Chronic Pain

Pain management Journal, Journal of Pain, Journal of Palliative Care & Medicine, Translational Medicine, Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education, Journal of Pain, Molecular Pain, Open Pain Journal, Pain Practice, Clinical Journal of Pain

Pain killer drugs

Pain killers are powerful drugs that interfere with the nervous system’s transmission of the nerve signals we perceive as pain.

Pain killers are powerful drugs that interfere with the nervous system’s transmission of the nerve signals we perceive as pain. Most painkillers also stimulate portions of the brain associated with pleasure. Thus, in addition to blocking pain, they produce a “high.” The most powerful prescription painkillers are called opioids, which are opium-like compounds. They are manufactured to react on the nervous system in the same way as drugs derived from the opium poppy, like heroin.

The most commonly abused opioid painkillers include oxycodone, hydrocodone, meperidine, hydromorphone and propoxyphene. There are many different pain medicines, and each one has advantages and risks. Some types of pain respond better to certain medicines than others. Each person may also have a slightly different response to a pain reliever.

Related Journals of Pain Killers

Journal of Pain & Symptommanagement, Open pain Journal, Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle, Journal of Palliative Care & Medicine, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, Anti-Cancer Drugs, BioDrugs, Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, Chinese Journal of New Drugs, Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs, Drugs in Context

Anesthesia

Anesthesia is a drug that numbs part of your body or makes you unconscious so that you don't experience pain during a procedure like surgery. It is done in general practice to avoid pain during surgery. It is of two type general anesthesia and local anesthesia depending on the site of surgery.

Anesthesia is classified into three broad categories General anesthesia, Sedation, Conduction anesthesia,. The anesthesia that suppresses central nervous system activity and results in unconsciousness and total lack of sensation is general. Sedation also calleddissociative anesthesia) inhibits transmission of nerve impulses between the cerebral cortex and limbic system. Conduction commonly known as regional or local anesthesia, which causes loss of sensation in the targeted body part by blocking transmission of nerve impulses between a targeted part of the body and the spinal cord.

Related Journals of Anesthesia

European Journal of Anesthesiology, Journal of Opioid management, Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research, Anesthesiology, British Journal of Anaesthesia, Paediatric Anaesthesia, Journal of Clinical Anesthesia

Chronic Pain

Chronic pain has the active pain for more than six months unlike acute pain. Chronic pain can be mild or excruciating, episodic or continuous, merely inconvenient or totally incapacitating.

Chronic pain describes pain that lasts more than three to six months, or beyond the point of tissue healing. Chronic pain is usually less directly related to identifiable tissue damage and structural problems. There are at least two different types of chronic pain problems - chronic pain due to an identifiable pain generator (e.g. an injury), and chronic pain with no identifiable pain generator (e.g. the injury has healed) often termed “chronic benign pain”. Chronic pain and depression are two of the most common health problems that health professionals encounter. The type of depression with chronic pain is referred to as major depression or clinical depression.

Related Journal of Chronic Pain

Chronic Pain Management, Pain management Journals, International Journal of Neurorehabilitation, Pain Research and Treatment, Pain Research and Management, Pain Practice, Pain Medicine, Clinical Journal of Pain, European Journal of Pain

Nociceptive Pain

Nociceptive pain is caused by damage to body tissue and usually described as a sharp, aching, or throbbing pain. Nociceptive pain is due to benign or by tumors or by cancer cells that are growing larger and gathering other body parts at the cancer site. Nociceptive pain may also be caused by cancer spreading to the bones, muscles, or joints, or that causes the blockage of an organ or blood vessels.

Nociceptive pain can be due to benign pathology; or by tumors or cancer cells that are growing larger and crowding other body parts near the cancer site. Nociceptive pain may also be caused by cancer spreading to the bones, muscles, or joints, or that causes the blockage of an organ or blood vessels. When nociceptors are stimulated they transmit signals through sensory neurons in the spinal cord. These neurons release the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate at their synapses. Nociceptive pain is caused by damage to body tissue and usually described as a sharp, aching, or throbbing pain. Nociception can also cause generalized autonomic responses before or without reaching consciousness, hypertension, diaphoresis, cause pallor, tachycardia , nausea, light-headedness and fainting.

Related Journals of Nociceptive Pain

Pain medicine Journal, Pain management, Rheumatology: Current Research, Journal of Pain, Molecular Pain, Open Pain Journal, Pain Practice, Clinical Journal of Pain

Low Back Pain

Pain in the lower back area that can relate to problems with the lumbar spine, the discs between the vertebrae, the ligaments around the spine and discs, the spinal cord and nerves, muscles of the low back, internal organs of the pelvis and abdomen, or the skin covering the lumbar area.

Related Journal of Low Back Pain

Pain medicine, Pain management Journals, Journal of Osteoporosis and Physical Activity, Journal of Pain, Molecular Pain, Open Pain Journal, Pain Practice, Clinical Journal of Pain

Opioid

Opioids are medications that relieve pain. They reduce the intensity of pain signals receiving to the brain and affect the brain areas those control emotions, which diminishes the effects of a painful stimulus. Medications that fall within this class include hydrocodone, oxycodone, morphine, codeine, and related drugs.

Opioids reduce the intensity of pain signals reaching the brain and affect those brain areas controlling emotion, diminishing the effects of a painful stimulus. Opioids can also produce drowsiness, depending upon the amount of drug taken, mental confusion, constipation, nausea and depress respiration. Pains that may not respond well to other pain medications, are treated by Opioids, are also used to treat moderate to severe pain.

Related Journal of Opioids

Journal of Opioid management, European Journal of Anesthesiology, Journal of Pain & Relief, Journal of Palliative Care & Medicine, Opioid receptors, Journal of Opioid Management

Pain Sensation

Pain sensation is the specific quality of sensation derived from the pain-spots of the skin and from the terminal organs of pain within the body.

Pain is an unpleasant sensation caused by the activation of nociceptors by thermal, mechanical, chemical, or other stimuli. If you feel pain it hurts, you feel discomfort, distress and perhaps agony, depending on the severity of it. Pain can be steady and constant, in which case it may be an ache

Related Journal of Pain Sensation

Journal of Pain, Chronic Pain Management, Translational Medicine, Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education, Journal of Pain & Relief, Journal of Pain, Molecular Pain, Open Pain Journal, Pain Practice, Clinical Journal of Pain, European Journal of Pain, Pain Research and Management

Reaction to Pain

Reaction of pain is observed by dilation of the pupil or any other involuntary act occurring in response to a stimulus causing sharp pain anywhere.

This is a long pathway, in which neurons make connections in both the brain and the spinal cord. Explain what happens when one slams a door on one's finger. First, nerve endings in the finger sense the injury to the finger (sensory neurons) and they send impulses along axons to the spinal cord (magenta pathway). The incoming axons form a synapse with neurons that project up to the brain. The neurons that travel up the spinal cord then form synapses with neurons in the thalamus, which is a part of the midbrain (magenta circle). The thalamus organizes this information and sends it to the sensory cortex (blue), which interprets the information as pain and directs the nearby motor cortex (orange) to send information back to the thalamus (green pathway). Again, the thalamus organizes this incoming information and sends signals down the spinal cord, which direct motor neurons to the finger and other parts of the body to react to the pain (e.g., shaking the finger or screaming "ouch!").

Some of the most obvious reactions to pain can be seen in the body. People tense up and hold their breath. It is common for them to get restless and keep changing their position. However, some people do the opposite and freeze.

Related Journals of Reaction of Pain

Journal of Pain & Symptom, Pain Medicine Journal, Journal of Pain & Relief, Journal of Palliative Care & Medicine, Journal of Pain, Molecular Pain, Open Pain Journal, Pain Practice, Clinical Journal of Pain, European Journal of Pain, Pain Research and Management

Acute Pain

Acute pain might be mild and last just a moment, or it might be severe and last for weeks or months. In most cases, acute pain does not last longer than six months, and it disappears when the underlying cause of pain has been treated or has healed. Unrelieved acute pain, however, might lead to chronic pain.

Related Journals of Acute Pain

Pain Medicine, Pain management Journals, Journal of Palliative Care & Medicine, Alternative & Integrative Medicine, Molecular Pain, Open Pain Journal, Pain Practice, Clinical Journal of Pain

Acupuncture

Acupuncture is originally a Chinese practice of inserting fine needles through the skin at specific points especially to cure disease or relieve pain

Acupuncture is a complementary medical practice that entails stimulating certain points on the body, most often with a needle penetrating the skin, to alleviate pain or to help treat various health conditions. By inserting needles into specific points along these meridians, acupuncture practitioners believe that your energy flow will re-balance. Acupuncture is really used to alleviate cancer treatment-induced side effects or cancer-induced symptoms; Traditional acupuncture is based on the belief that an energy, or "life force", flows through the body in channels called meridians.

Related Journals of  Acupunture

Chronic Pain Management, Open Pain Journal, Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle, Journal of Pain & Relief, Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics Research

Pain Medication

Pain medications work chemically to interrupt pain signals producing an analgesic effect and some medications also have an anti-inflammatory component that is particularly effective for inflammation associated with back pain.

 Related Journal of Pain Medication

Pain Medicine Journal, Journal of Pain & Symptom management,  International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, International Journal of Neurorehabilitation, Journal of Osteoporosis and Physical Activity

Natural Pain Relievers

Food is the natural pain relievers and natural alternatives to NSAIDs that have a similar mechanism," says Leopold. They include turmeric, green tea, ginger, rosemary, cat's claw, devil's claw, and willow bark.

Related Journals of Natural Pain Relievers

European Journal of Anesthesiology, Journal of pain, Journal of Pain & Relief, Alternative & Integrative Medicine, Journal of Palliative Care & Medicine

Orthopedics

Orthopedics is a branch of medicine concerned with the correction or prevention of deformities, disorders, or injuries of the skeleton and associated structures as tendons and ligaments.

Osteoarthritis is a joint disease that mostly affects cartilage. Cartilage is the slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint. Healthy cartilage allows bones to glide over each other. It also helps absorb shock of movement. In osteoarthritis, the top layer of cartilage breaks down and wears away. This allows bones under the cartilage to rub together. The rubbing causes pain, swelling, and loss of motion of the joint. Over time, the joint may lose its normal shape. Also, bone spurs may grow on the edges of the joint. Bits of bone or cartilage can break off and float inside the joint space, which causes more pain and damage.

People with osteoarthritis often have joint pain and reduced motion. Osteoarthritis occurs most often in older people. Younger people sometimes get osteoarthritis primarily from joint injuries.

Osteoarthritis usually happens gradually over time. Some risk factors that might lead to it include: being overweight, getting older, joint injury, joints that are not properly formed, a genetic defect in joint cartilage and stresses on the joints from certain jobs and playing sports.

Related Journals of  Traumatology

Pain Medicine Journals, Pain management, International Journal of Neurorehabilitation, Journal of Pain & Relief, Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology

Pain Tolerance

Pain tolerance is the maximum level of pain that a person is able to tolerate. Pain tolerance is influenced by people's emotions, bodies, and lifestyles. There are several factors that affect pain tolerance: Depression and anxiety can make a person more sensitive to pain. Athletes can withstand more pain than people who don't exercise. People who smoke or are obese report more pain.

Related Journal of Pain tolerance

Pain Medicine, Open Pain Journal, Journal of Novel Physiotherapies, Journal of Nursing & Care, Journal of Pain, Molecular Pain, Open Pain Journal, Pain Practice, Clinical Journal of Pain

Neuropathies

Neuropathy is the term used to describe a problem with the nerves, usually the 'peripheral nerves' as opposed to the 'central nervous system' (the brain and spinal cord).

Neuropathy is a disorder that occurs when these nerves malfunction because they are damaged or destroyed. This disrupts the nerves’ normal functioning. They might send signals of pain when there is nothing causing pain, or they might not send a pain signal even if something is harming you. This can be caused by injury, systemic illness, infection, or may be associated with an inherited disorder. neuropathy causes Diabetes, B12 or folate vitamin deficiencies, Cancers, Chronic kidney disease.

Related Journals of Neuropathies

Journal of Opioid Management, Chronic Pain Management, International Journal of Neurorehabilitation , Journal of Osteoporosis and Physical Activity, Neuroscience Research, Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, Neurobiology of Disease, Neuroendocrinology, Neurology Psychiatry and Brain Research

Hypnosis

Hypnosis, also referred to as hypnotherapy or hypnotic suggestion, is a trance-like state in which you have heightened focus and concentration. Hypnosis is usually done with the help of a therapist using verbal repetition and mental images. When you're under hypnosis, you usually feel calm and relaxed, and are more open to suggestions.

Hypnosis: Hypnosis is a state of consciousness in which a person apparently loses the power of voluntary action. During hypnosis, a person is said to have heightened focus and concentration. Hypnosurgery is the term given to an operation where the patient is sedated using hypnotherapy. Its use in therapy, typically to recover suppressed memories or to allow modification of behaviour, has been revived but is still controversial.

Related Journal of Hypnosis

Pain Management Journal, Pain Medicine Journal, Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle, Journal of Pain & Relief, American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, Australian society of Hypnosis

Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure is performed for diagnosis and treatment of joint abnormalities. Arthroscopy is an outpatient procedure. Arthroscopy is done by using general, spinal, regional, or local anesthetic.

It is a minimally invasive surgical procedure on a joint in which an examination and sometimes treatment of damage is performed using an arthroscope, an endoscope that is inserted into the joint through a small incision.

Related Journals of Arthroscopy

Journal of Pain, Chronic Pain Management, Journal of Arthroscopy And Related Surgery

Post-Operative Pain

Post-surgical pain is a complex response to tissue trauma during surgery that stimulates hypersensitivity of the central nervous system. The result is pain in areas not directly affected by the surgical procedure. Post-operative pain may be experienced by an inpatient or outpatient. It can be felt after any surgical procedure, whether it is minor dental surgery or a triple-bypass heart operation.

Post-Operative Pain: The amount of pain a patient suffers after surgery is related to the extent of tissue damage and the site of surgery. It interfere sleep and physical functioning and can negatively affect a patient’s health on multiple levels. Joint replacement is associated with severe postoperative pain. Postoperative pain management includes minimise patient discomfort, facilitate early mobilisation and functional recovery, and prevent acute pain developing into chronic pain.

Related Journal of Post-operative pain

Journal of Pain, Pain Medicine, Molecular Pain, Open Pain Journal, Pain Research and Management

Meditation

Meditation is a practice of concentrated focus upon a sound, object, visualization, the breath, movement, or attention itself in order to increase awareness of the present moment, reduce stress, promote relaxation, and enhance personal and spiritual growth.

Meditation may involve generating an emotional state for the purpose of analyzing that state such as anger, hatred. Meditation is the practice of turning your attention to a single point of reference. It can involve focusing on the breath, on bodily sensations, or on a word or phrase known as a mantra. In other words, meditation means turning your attention away from distracting thoughts and focusing on the present moment.

Related Journals of Meditation

Pain Medicine Journal, European Journal of Anesthesiology, Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy

Journal Highlights

 

Major Disease Statistics

 
*Unofficial 2015 Journal Impact Factor was established by dividing the number of articles published in 2013 and 2014 with the number of times they are cited in 2015 based on Google search and the Scholar Citation Index database. If 'X' is the total number of articles published in 2013 and 2014, and 'Y' is the number of times these articles were cited in indexed journals during 2015 then, impact factor = Y/X

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