|Open Access (OA) journals such as “Pharmacoepidemiology and
Drug Safety” from OMICS Publishing Group allow researchers to
maximize dissemination of their work by reaching the largest possible
audience. Articles published in open access format are more likely to
be cited than those that are not . Due to this reason impact factor
of open access journals is on the rise for the last couple of years .
Researchers in developing nations are more likely to access information
published by OA journals. By publishing in OA journals, researchers
can also conform to the requirements of various granting agencies such
as NIH and Wellcome Trust . OMICS Publishing Group strongly
supports the open access initiative and all articles published by OMICS
Publishing Group are freely accessible to everyone immediately after
publication. Some of the special features of OMICS group journals include
digital formatting, audio listening, language translation and ability
to share views on articles via social networking.
|The aim of the Journal “Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety”
is to provide an international forum for communication and evaluation
of data methods and opinion in the emerging discipline of pharmacoepidemiology.
The Journal publishes peer-reviewed reports of
original research, invited reviews and a variety of guest editorials and
commentaries embracing scientific, medical, statistical, and legal aspects
of pharmacoepidemiology and post-marketing surveillance of
drug safety. Appropriate material in these categories may also be considered
for publication as a Brief Communication. Particular areas of
interest include: design, analysis and interpretation of post-marketing
surveillance and other studies looking at specific drugs in populations
and methods for detection and evaluation of drug-associated adverse
events, assessments of risk versus benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns
of drug utilization, and the formulation and interpretation of
|Pharmacoepidemiology is a branch of science that investigates
the use and effects (beneficial and deleterious) of medications (“pharmaco”)
in large populations (“epidemiology”). Pharmacoepidemiology
is called a bridge science bringing together pharmacology and pharmacy,
clinical specialties, epidemiology, biostatistics, demography and
social sciences. Epidemiology and clinical pharmacology are the two
main bridgeheads. Pharmacoepidemiological studies identify the associations
between a drug and one or more clinical events that had been
missed in therapeutic trials. About 100,000 Americans die each year
from Adverse Drug Reactions, and 1.5 million US hospitalizations each
year result from Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Unfortunately, about
20-70% of ADRs may be preventable. The harmful and the negative side
effects of drugs has led to the recent emergence of the field of pharmacoepidemiology
|Pharmacoepidemiology versus Clinical Pharmacology
|Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned
with the study of drug action . Clinical Pharmacology is the study
of the effects of drugs in humans. Pharmacoepidemiology is a part of
Clinical Pharmacology and can provide vital information about the
positive and negative effects of any drug, resulting in a better evaluation
of the risk/ benefit ratio for the use of a drug in a patient.
|Clinical pharmacology is categorized into two main areas: Pharmacokinetics
and Pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetics (PK) (pharmakon:
“drug” and kinetikos: “to do with motion”) is dedicated to the determination
of the fate of substances administered externally to a living
organism. It deals with drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and
excretion. Pharmacokinetics is often studied in relation to pharmacodynamics.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the relationship between
drug level and drug effect. Pharmacokinetics may be simply defined
as what the body does to the drug, as opposed to pharmacodynamics
which may be defined as what the drug does to the body.
|Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics make it possible to
know the effect of certain drug inside the body of a patient. Pharmacoepidemiology
includes contributions from both these fields, exploring
the effects achieved by administering a drug regimen.
|Pharmacology versus Epidemiology
|Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and patterns of health
events, health characteristics and their causes or influences in welldefined
populations. It is the cornerstone method of public health research,
and helps inform policy decisions and evidence-based medicine
by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive medicine.
Pharmacoepidemilogy is a part of epidemiology since it deals
with the effects of drugs in large numbers of people or in a population.
Despite the fact that pharmacoepidemilogical approaches can be useful
in performing the clinical trials of drugs that are performed before
marketing, the major application of these principles is after drug marketing.
Pharmacoepidemilogy acquires its focus of inquiry from clinical
pharmacology and its methods of inquiry from epidemiology .
During this process, various logistical approaches have been developed
and methodologic issues have arisen .
|Normally, clinicians are more interested in knowing the effects
of a new drug and its costs. However, little attention is paid to any
negative side effects of the newly synthesized drug. The existence
of any adverse effects of a drug and its safety is one of the most
important contributions that can be made by pharmacoepidemilogy
studies. All drugs have one or more side effect which cannot be
avoided. But if we can detect those side effects a little early through
various pharmacoepidemilogical approaches and educate health care
providers as well as public, it could result in better medication use.
Increased research efforts in pharmacoepidemilogy will be better
for pharmaceutical industry and academia but most importantly, for public’s health. I am confident the open access OMICS Group Journal
“Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety” will make a
positive impact in this direction.
- MacCallum CJ, Parthasarathy H (2006) Open access increases citation rate. PLoS Biol 4: e176.
- BioMed Central. Open access journals get impressive impact factors; journals published by BioMed Central get new impact factors from ISI.
- Clauson KA, Veronin MA, Khanfar NM, Lou JQ (2008) Open-access publishing for pharmacy focused journals. Am J Health Syst Pharm 65: 1539-1544.
- Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN (1998) Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients : a meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA 279: 1200-1205.
- Vallance P, Smart TG (2006) The future of pharmacology. Br J Pharmacol 147: S304–307.
- Joint Commission on Prescription Drug Use (1980) Final Report, Washington D.C.