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Journal of Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide, Reproductive Medicine, Genetics & Stem Cell Biology
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Heteropaternal Superfecundation: A Case Report in Turkey

Ozlem Bulbul*, Gonul Filoglu and Havva Altuncul
Institute of Forensic Science, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
*Corresponding Author : Ozlem Bulbul
Institute of Forensic Science
Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
Tel: 0090 5353984526
Received July 15, 2013; Accepted September 25, 2013; Published September 27, 2013
Citation: Bulbul O, Filoglu G, Altuncul H (2013) Heteropaternal Superfecundation: A Case Report in Turkey.J Fertil In Vitro IVF Worldw Reprod Med Genet Stem Cell Biol 1:112. doi:jfiv.1000112
Copyright: © 2013 Bulbul O, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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Superfecundation is the fertilization of two or more ova from the same cycle by sperm from separate acts of
sexual intercourse. Heteropaternal superfecundation occurs when two different males father fraternal twins. This article reports a case of paternity identification in twins. The results showed that each twin had come from a different father.

Heteropaternal twins; Paternity testing; STR-DNA analysis
Superfecundation is often used instead of heteropaternal superfecundation which refers to the instances where two different males father fraternal twins. The terms superfecundation by the same father is a common occurrence, it can only be proven to have occurred when there are multiple fathers. When the parents of fraternal twins are involved in a paternity suit, the odds are about 1 in 40 that the children are actually half-siblings [1-4].
History of the Case
DNA paternity and maternity tests were performed at the request of the married couple in Istanbul. The alleged mother gave birth to twins who have different blood groups. Parents claimed that one of the twins who has different blood group is not their baby. To solve this case, the blood samples were typed using 15 STR loci plus amelogenin marker (Applied Biosystems).
Materials and Methods
Blood samples were collected from the twins, alleged mother and father. DNA was extracted from whole blood and dried blood stains samples by using two different methods, Chelex and QIAmp DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN, Hagen, Germany) respectively. DNA was quantitated by using commercially available Qubit Fluorometer (Invitrogen).
Amplifications of 15 STR loci (D3S1358, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, TH01, TPOX, CSF1PO, D19S433, D2S1338, D16S539) and a gender determination marker were performed by using the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® PCR Amplification Kit according to the user’s manual recommendations [AmpFlSTR1 IdentifilerTM PCR Amplification Kit User’s Manual, 2001]. The separation and detection of amplified products were conducted with the ABI Prism 3130 Genetic Analyzer 4-capillary array system (Applied Biosystems). Data collection was performed with Data Collection v. 2.0 software (Applied Biosystems) and samples were analyzed by GeneMapperIDX software (Applied Biosystems). Samples were investigated in duplicate.
Results and Discussion
The results of the possible genotypes of each individual are given in Table 1. The results are in favour of paternity of alleged father and maternity of alleged mother in relation to twin 1. All markers are in concordance with paternity. Calculation of the combined paternity index (CPI) of 2256416. This corresponds to a probability of paternity (W) equal to 99.9999% (using a prior odds of 50%). We also calculated combined Maternity index (CMI) of mother is 1312153 and corresponds to a probability of maternity (W) equal to 99.9999% (using a prior odds of 50%).
The results exclude alleged father 1 in relation to twin 2. Six genetic inconsistencies (D18S1179, D21S11, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433 ve FGA) were observed among the 15 autosomal loci. Alleged mother was shown to be Twin 2’s mother for all markers. Calculation of the combined maternity index (CMI) of 2308328. This corresponds to a probability of maternity (W) equal to 99.9999%. According to maternity the alleged mother was determined as mother of the twins.
In this case, a woman had sexual intercourse with two men where twins were conceived. She gave birth to twins from different fathers after two eggs were fertilized by the sperm of the two men. A report based on the paternity test has shown that there was a 99.999 percent chance that the twins were fathered by different men.

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