alexa Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2375-4508
Journal of Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide, Reproductive Medicine, Genetics & Stem Cell Biology
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Flavia Denaday1,2*
1Gynecologist, Reproductive Medicine Reproductive Medicine Clinic, Argentina
2Argentina Society of Reproductive Medicine, Argentina
*Corresponding Author : Dr. Flavia Denaday, M.D
Gynecologist particular/Gynecologist-Reproductive
Medicine Reproductive Medicine Clinic, Argentina
E-mail: denadayflavia@gmail.com
Received October 15, 2012; Accepted November 22, 2012; Published November 24, 2012
Citation: Denaday F (2012) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). J Fert In Vitro 2:117. doi:10.4172/2165-7491.1000117
Copyright: © 2012 Denaday F. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide, Reproductive Medicine, Genetics & Stem Cell Biology

Objective
The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of emotional disorders in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) compared to women without PCOS as well as research on the infertility causes of the former ones to identify if their infertility is exacerbated by depression which could be the reason for delay in seeking medical consultation [1,2].
Introduction
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Little is known about the etiology of this disorder. However, it can be described as a genetic disease and, moreover, it is considered that the post-natal and intrauterine environment and the plasticity during the age of puberty and through the whole life of the woman play an important etiologic role [3].
There is still little information about the etiology and pathogenesis of this enigmatic disease, so much so that it is still under investigation whether the PCOS is a disease or an adaptation. A disease is defined as a pathological condition of the body which shows a group of symptoms of its own and that establishes a separate condition as an abnormal entity which differs from the normal one or from the other pathological states of the body, whereas the adaptation is defined, as in biology, as the capacity of an organism to adapt to an environment’s change. Having these concepts in mind, we can analyze whether the PCOS is a disease, that is to say, a fixed group of genetic variants such as Small Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), mutations or regulatory region alterations with variable phenotypic penetrance, or a developmental disorder that would cause a response to a deleterious intrauterine environment, or a fixed change in a coding region of the genome [4].
Methods
Empirical studies and expert consensus related to the physiological and psychological medical aspects of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome which were presented in this study were identified in articles through bibliographical research.
General Aspects
Infertile women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) report oligomenorrea and anovulation.
Additionally, they tend to be insulin resistant, a characteristic which is more frequent in obese or overweight patients.
This syndrome was described in 1935 by Stein and Leventhal, who associated it with the classic symptoms of amenorrea, hirsutism and obesity in patients with enlarged polycystic ovaries [5,6].
It is interesting to underline that there are publications which state that the polycystic ovaries condition declared only by findings resulting from an ultrasound does not have a significant impact on fertility in asymptomatic women [7].
During the last few years, hyperinsulinism has been identified as a consequence of a peripheral insulin resistance [8].
Hyperinsulinemia can directly reduce Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) levels which consequently contribute to the hyperandrogenism [9]. High levels of androgenic hormones interfere with the hypothalamus-hypophysis axis, leading to an increase in the Luteinizing Hormone (LH), with the subsequent anovulation and amenorrea and therefore causing infertility [10].
A beneficial effect has been demonstrated in these women in the use of metformin in ovarian steroidogenesis, especially in the effects of inhibition of the androgenoous productions [11,12].
Apart from the impact on the reproductive function, the importance of this Syndrome would be related to the long term risks of the symptoms mentioned above: chronic anovulation and extraovarian factors, such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, coronary disease’s risks and dyslipidemia [13].
PCOS is a disease which has a high clinical heterogeneity. In fact, diagnostic criteria continue to be controversial and no consensus has been reached regarding the pathognomonic features of their characteristics.
Considering that Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is associated with several metabolic complications we were conscious of the fact that there was a higher rate of women with PCOS (14%) compared with the control group (1%) which, in previous tests, had showed anxiety symptoms.
Moreover, scientific publications have recently described a higher risk of depression in women with PCOS. There exists an evident and clear prevalence, in these women with PCOS, of mood and sleep disorders and consequently they live a less quality life [1,2,6].
On the cited references, there are published works that describe patient cases in which women with PCOS were evaluated with Primary Health Care Assistance through a questionnaire about Mental Disorders, thus analyzing Depression Beck Inventory. Conclusions showed that women with PCOS are at an increased risk of depressive disorders in comparison with the control group (21% versus 3%, odds ratio 5.11, 95% confidence interval).
The overall risk of depressive disorders in women with PCOS was 4.23 (95%) regardless of obesity and infertility. These patients may have suicidal attempts together with feeding disorders [1].
There are some published works which even relate changes in eating habits (bulimic type) to the polycystic ovarian morphology [14]. However, these findings cannot disentangle this complex relationship and the action mechanism in spite of the fact that they are empirically related to the insulin resistance showed in these patients [1].
There are extensive publications which describe the higher prevalence of factors which cause emotional disorders in patients with PCOS than in those which do not suffer from it. These disorders not only include depressive disorders but also anxiety and its correlation with hyperandrogenism, among other metabolic markers such as insulin resistance and their impact on infertility that are also present in these patients [1,15].
Other authors declare that infertile women with PCOS who have not sought medical advice are more likely to suffer from anxiety and depressive disorders, among other mental health problems, in comparison with infertile women who seek medical advice.
However, it is unlikely that women with depression attend a medical consultation to treat their infertility.
Anxiety and depression symptoms may be barriers which prevent them from seeking medical advice on their infertility [2].
Conclusions
To conclude this study, we, as physicians, should be aware of the importance of our role and expertise when treating women with PCOS, given the fact that they may have negative emotional impacts. We should do a follow up and evaluate them thoroughly and as a unique person; bearing in mind, at the same time, that the patient with PCOS that presents metabolic changes has a higher risk of suffering from infertility and that her altered emotions may be a cause for a delay in seeking medical advice, which will inevitably compromise her maternity even more.
References
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 11917
  • [From(publication date):
    November-2012 - Mar 31, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8105
  • PDF downloads :3812
 
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

OMICS International Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
OMICS International Conferences 2016-17
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version