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Review of Electrical Prospecting Technology for Coal Mining in China

Guo-qiang X1*, Shu-cai L2, Wei-ying C1 and Dong-yang H1
1Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
2School of Resources & Geosciences China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou 221116, China
*Corresponding Author : Guo-qiang X
Institute of Geology and Geophysics
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing 100029, China
Tel: 8610 6859 7114
Received July 13, 2014; Accepted July 15, 2014; Published July 17, 2014
Citation: Guo-qiang X, Shu-cai L, Wei-ying C, Dong-yang H (2014) Review of Electrical Prospecting Technology for Coal Mining in China. J Geol Geosci 3:e117. doi: 10.4172/2329-6755.1000e117
Copyright: © 2014 Guo-qiang X, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Over the past few decades, shallow coal resources in China have nearly been mined out to meet the growing demand of industry. To address the challenge, there is great need to shift our focus from shallow to deep coal resources. However, water filled in deep Ordovician limestone and Taiyuan Group limestones strongly threaten the exploration of coal with due safety and environmental considerations such as mining subsidence and protection of groundwater resources safety of coal production. Two main factors i.e. to maximize the production in coal mining and protection of groundwater have focused our attention on the need for mapping the water filled zone and corresponding hydro geological conditions accurately in deep North China coal field which is of great guiding significance and practical value for coal mine safety. There are number of geophysical techniques which have been used in coal prospecting for many years. One of the modern geophysical methods is transient electromagnetic method (TEM).
The sensitivity for high conducting body, small volume effect and high work efficiency are the features making it preferred electromagnetic method in coal hydrogeological prospecting. To exploit coal reservoirs lying at greater and the subsequence increase of mining depth, it is necessary to utilize certain geophysical techniques having capability to look into deeper horizons of the subsurface.
Commonly, water-filled structures can be divided into five types:
• Aquifer at the quaternary bottom boundaries with a shallow buried depth;
• Hole and fissure water from sandstones at coal seam roof;
• Water from Ordovician limestone at coal floor;
• Water from water - conducting channels such as collapse columns and faults;
• Water from old mine goafs and poor sealing drilling holes.
Generally geophysical methods can be grouped in two main categories surface and subsurface geoph include direct current method (DC), TEM, and control source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT). Details of each geophysical tool in terms of its main characteristics and applications are listed as following (Table 1).
The main work involved in underground geophysical detection includes:
• Advanced detection of water hazard in front of tunnel.
• Water hazard in the top or bottom of coal seam.
• Lateral water hazard beside the outer tunnel boundaries.
• Small structures and collapse column in the coal seam.
• Test of grouting for water-bearing structures.
• Real-time monitoring on floor damage belts and water bursting. The electromagnetic methods can be used mainly include: Underground DC, and Underground TEM .The use of the DC methods is shown in Table 2.
There are many new trends of electrical methods in the field of coal mine, such as
• For hydrological hazards, the focus of work have transformed from previous detection gradually to monitoring, early warning and forecasting.
• Other advanced geophysical methods are introduced to this field, such as frequency-domain IP, nuclear magnetic resonance, seismic-electric advanced detecting technology, underground and ground joint geophysical method and mine seismic prospecting (MSP).

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Table 1 Table 2
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