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ISSN: 2165-8064
Journal of Textile Science & Engineering
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Study on Color Strength of Different Reactive Dyes

Hossen M1* and Imran2

1Bangabandhu Textile Engineering College, Jamalpur, Bangladesh

2Department of Fabric Engineering, Bangladesh University of Textiles, Jamalpur, Bangladesh

*Corresponding Author:
Hossen M
Lecturer
Bangabandhu Textile Engineering College
Jamalpur, Bangladesh
Tel: +880 921-54013
E-mail: kanak_butex@yahoo.com

Received Date: April 03, 2017; Accepted Date: April 19, 2017; Published Date: April 20, 2017

Citation: Hossen M, Imran (2017) Study on Color Strength of Different Reactive Dyes. J Textile Sci Eng 6: 293. doi: 10.4172/2165-8064.1000293

Copyright: © 2017 Hossen M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

The use of reactive dyed products has dramatically increased over the last 50 years. Reactive coloring components are inert into materials which are adhered to the base substrate by the application of soda ash which act as fixing agent. The aim of our project is to know the color strength of Mono-flurotriazine-vinyl sulphone (MFT/VS), Mono-chlorotriazine-vinyl sulphone (MCT/VS) and Tri-Fluoro-Pyrimidine-Vinyl Sulphone (TFP/VS) reactive dyes. To fulfill the job at first the cotton fabric was scoured and bleached. Then dyeing was carried out with MCT/VS, MFT/VS and TFP/VS reactive dyes by exhaust method. For each types of reactive dye, light shade (0.5%), medium shade (1%) and deep shade (1.5%) were produced. After that K/S values were measured of each reactive dyed fabric. Also color fastness to wash was measured to observe the dyed fabric quality. Among the investigated reactive groups MCT/VS reactive dyes showed highest color strength and MFT/VS reactive dyes showed lowest color strength. The rating of color fastness to wash was found higher in MCT/VS reactive dyed samples and the lower rating was observed in TFP/VS reactive dyed samples.

Keywords

Color strength; Reactive dye; Dyed fabric; Cotton fabric; Reflectance

Introduction

Reactive dyes are colored compounds that contain functional groups capable of forming covalent bonds with active sites in fibers such as hydroxyl groups in cellulose, amino, thiol and hydroxyl groups in wool or amino groups in polyamides. Bond formation between the functional groups and substrate; result in high wet fastness properties. The commercial application of reactive dyes in the dyeing of cellulose, wool and nylon, either individually or compounds of fiber blends. These dyes also have their application in dyeing silk, hair and leather. Cotton is vastly used fiber in textile sector. Reactive dye is suitable for cotton fabric. There are various types of reactive dyes. Among them Monoflurotriazine- vinyl sulphone (MFT/VS), Mono-chlorotriazine-vinyl sulphone (MCT/VS) and Tri-Fluoro-Pyridine-Vinyl Sulphone (TFP/ VS) were used in this project to identify their color strength, color difference and color fastness to wash. Strength of any colorant (dyestuff / pigment) is related to absorption property. We measure reflectance and not absorbance. It is known to us that when reflectance is more, absorbance is less and when reflectance is less, absorbance is more. Here the dye contains a reactive group and this reactive group makes covalent bond with the fiber polymer and act as an integral part of fiber. This covalent bond is formed between the dye molecules and the terminal –OH (hydroxyl) group of cellulosic fibers on between the dye molecules and the terminal –NH2 (amino) group of polyamide or wool fibers. In a reactive dye a chromophore contains a substituent that reacts with the substrate. Reactive dyes have good fastness properties owing to the bonding that occurs during dyeing. Reactive dyes are most commonly used in dyeing of cellulose like cotton or flax, but also wool is dye able with reactive dyes. Reactive dyeing is the most important method for the coloration of cellulosic fibers. Reactive dyes can also be applied on wool and nylon; in the latter case they are applied under weakly acidic conditions. Reactive dyes have a low utilization degree compared to other types of dyestuff, since the functional group also bonds to water, creating hydrolysis [1].

Materials and Methods

Materials

Fabric specification

Fabric type: Cotton (100%)

• Fabric state: Grey

• GSM: 160

Chemicals and auxiliaries used

• Reactive dye (MCT/VS, MFT/VS and TFP/VS)

• Caustic soda

• Hydrogen peroxide

• Peroxide stabilizer

• Peroxide killer

• Detergent

• Glauber salt

• Wetting agent

• Sequestering agent

• Levelling agent

• Soda ash

Machines used

• Sample dyeing machine

• Wash fastness tester machine

Electric balance

• Oven

• Dryer

• Spectrophotometer (Data Color Machine)

Methods

Pretreatment: In pretreatment, the scouring and bleaching process were performed in same bath. By scouring and bleaching process the absorbency of fabric increased as per requirement for a good quality fabric. The process was performed by exhaust method (Table 1 and Figure 1)

MFT/VS type reactive dye
Shade% Salt (g/l) (20% stock solution) Soda ash (g/l) Leveling agent (g/l) (2% stock solution)
(5% stock solution)
0.5% (Red,Yellow,Blue) 30 3 1
1.0% (Red,Yellow,Blue) 40 5 1
1.5% (Red,Yellow,Blue) 60 8 1
Time 40 min
Temperature 60°C
M:L 01:10

Table 1: MFT/VS type reactive dye.

textile-science-engineering-curve

Figure 1: Dyeing curve.

A) Recipe

• NaOH: 3 g/L

• Wetting agent: 1 g/L

• Sequestering agent: 1 g/L

• Detergent: 1 g/L

• H2O2: 3 g/L

• Peroxide stabilizer: 0.5 g/L

• pH: 10-11

• Temperature: 90-95°C

• Time: 40-50 min

• M:L 1:50

b) Procedure

At first the additional water is taken to the dye bath. Then all the required auxiliaries are taken to the dye bath and stirred till dissolved properly. Then the fabric immersed in the dye bath liquor and temperature about to 90-95°C and the pH should be maintained at 10- 11. This process was for 40-50 minutes. After completing scouring and bleaching drain out the liquor from dye bath and cold wash [2].

Peroxide killing process

A) Recipe

• Peroxide killer enzyme: 3 g/L

• Acetic acid: 1 g/L

• Temperature: 40-50°C

• Time: 20 min

• pH: 4-5

• M:L 1:50

b) Dyeing: Dyeing of cotton fabric was done with different reactive dyes containing MCT/VS, MFT/VS and TFP/VS reactive groups by sample dyeing machine (Figure 2).

textile-science-engineering-processing

Figure 2: Processing curve.

c) Procedure: At first required dye, salt, soda ash and leveling agent was taken in a dye bath at room temperature. Then fabric was immersed into dye bath and kept into a sample dyeing machine. Then fabric was dyed for 30 min at 60°C. After dyeing the fabric was taken out from dye bath and washed with acid and detergent individually. After washing the fabric was dried with the help of dryer [3,4].

Testing

Measurement of K/S value The K/S value was assessed by Spectrophotometer to observe the color strength of different reactive dyes which works on Kubelka-Munk equation:

equation

Where, R is the decimal fraction of the reflectance of dyed fiber.

Where R=1.0 at 100% reflectance.

Relationship of K/S to concentration

K/S=kc

Where

K=light absorbed

S=light scattered

k=constant of proportionality

C=concentration of colorant

Since K/S factors for each dye at a particular

Color difference (ΔE)

Color difference was observed by spectrophotometer to see the color difference between different reactive dyed fabric.

Color difference denoted by ΔE

Color difference according to ΔL*, Δa*and Δb* is

ΔE=[(ΔL*)2+(Δa*)2+(Δb*)2]1\2

Where,

ΔL*=Difference in lightness/darkness value, +ve represents lighter and -ve represents darker

Δa*=Difference on Red/Green axis, +ve represents Redder and -ve represents Greener

Δb*=Difference on Yellow/Blue axis, +ve represents Yellower and -ve represents Bluer.

ΔC*=Difference in chroma, +ve represents brighter and -ve represents duller.

Δh*=Difference in hue.

Color fastness to wash of dyed fabric

Color fastness to wash was measured according to the I.S.O test method-105. It was measured to know the dyed fabric quality.

Results and Discussion

Color strength

K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 0.5% shade (red): The K/S values of MCT/VS have higher strength than MFT/VS and TFP/VS reactive groups. So, it is concluded that MCT/VS has high color strength for 0.5% shade (red) (Figure 3).

textile-science-engineering-reactive

Figure 3: K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 0.5% shade (Red).

K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 1% shade (red): The K/S values of MCT/VS have higher strength than MFT/VS and TFP/VS reactive groups. So, it is concluded that MCT/VS has high color strength for 1% shade (red) (Figure 4).

textile-science-engineering-samples

Figure 4: K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 1% shade (Red).

K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 1.5% shade (red): The K/S values of MCT/VS have higher strength than MFT/VS and TFP/VS reactive groups. So, it is concluded that MCT/VS has high color strength for 1.5% shade (red) (Figure 5).

textile-science-engineering-shade

Figure 5: K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 1.5% shade (Red).

K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 0.5% shade (yellow): The K/S values of MCT/VS have higher strength than MFT/ VS and TFP/VS reactive groups. So, it is concluded that MCT/VS has high color strength for 0.5% shade (yellow) (Figure 6).

textile-science-engineering-yellow

Figure 6: K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 0.5% shade (yellow).

K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 1% shade (yellow): The K/S values of MCT/VS have higher strength than MFT/ VS and TFP/VS reactive groups. So, it is concluded that MCT/VS has high color strength for 1% shade (yellow) (Figure 7).

textile-science-engineering-values

Figure 7: K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 1% shade (yellow).

K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 1.5% shade (yellow): The K/S values of MCT/VS have higher strength than MFT/VS and TFP/VS reactive groups. So, it is concluded that MCT/VS has high color strength for 1.5% shade (yellow) (Figure 8).

textile-science-engineering-reactive

Figure 8: K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 1.5% shade (yellow).

K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 0.5% shade (blue): The K/S values of MCT/VS have higher strength than MFT/VS and TFP/VS reactive groups. So, it is concluded that MCT/VS has high color strength for 0.5% shade (blue) (Figure 9).

textile-science-engineering-blue

Figure 9: K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 0.5% shade (blue).

K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 1% shade (blue): The K/S values of MCT/VS have higher strength than MFT/VS and TFP/VS reactive groups. So, it is concluded that MCT/VS has high color strength for 1% shade (blue) (Figure 10).

textile-science-engineering-values

Figure 10: K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 1% shade (blue).

K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 1.5% shade (blue): The K/S values of MCT/VS have higher strength than MFT/VS and TFP/VS reactive groups. So, it is concluded that MCT/VS has high color strength for 1.5% shade (blue) (Figure 11).

textile-science-engineering-reactive

Figure 11: K/S values of different reactive dyed samples for 1.5% shade (blue).

Color difference

Color difference was measured to see the color difference of reactive dyes of different reactive groups of same shade%. According to spectrophotometer reading, ΔE shows the color difference between TFP/VS and MCT/VS reactive groups and between TFP/VS and MFT/ VS reactive groups. The color difference between different reactive groups was found because of different color strength of different reactive dyes.

The color difference between TFP/VS and MCT/VS showed less color difference for 0.5% (red) and color difference between TFP/VS and MFT/VS showed more color difference for 1.5% (red) (Table 2).

Standard: TFP/VS ΔE=1.75
Trial: MCT/VS
Standard: TFP/VS ΔE=18.64
Trial: MFT/VS

Table 2: Color difference between TFP/VS and MCT/VS showed less color difference for 0.5% (red) and color difference between TFP/VS and MFT/VS showed more color difference for 1.5% (red).

The color difference between TFP/VS and MFT/VS showed less color difference for 0.5% (yellow) and color difference between TFP/VS and MCT/VS showed more color difference for 1.5% (yellow) (Table 3).

  Yellow 0.5% Yellow 1% Yellow 1.5%
Standard: TFP/VS ΔE=8.56 ΔE=10.02 ΔE =11.10
Trial: MCT/VS
Standard: TFP/VS ΔE=7.70 ΔE=8.90 ΔE=8.60
Trial: MFT/VS

Table 3: Color difference between TFP/VS and MFT/VS showed less color difference for 0.5% (yellow) and color difference between TFP/VS and MCT/VS showed more color difference for 1.5% (yellow).

The color difference between TFP/VS and MFT/VS showed less color difference for 1.5% (blue) and color difference between TFP/VS and MFT/VS showed more color difference for 0.5% (blue) (Table 4).

  Blue 0.5% Blue 1% Blue 1.5%
Standard: TFP/VS ΔE=2.35 ΔE=2.74 ΔE=3.22
Trial: MCT/VS
Standard: TFP/VS ΔE=3.40 ΔE=2.25 ΔE=2.21
Trial: MFT/VS

Table 4: Color difference between TFP/VS and MFT/VS showed less color difference for 1.5% (blue) and color difference between TFP/VS and MFT/VS showed more color difference for 0.5% (blue).

Color fastness to wash

MCT/VS type reactive dyed fabric (Table 5); MFT/VS type reactive dye (Table 6); TFP/VS type reactive dye (Table 7).

Fabric Color Change value Remark Staining value Remark
Blue Light shade:4 Good Light shade:5 Excellent
Deep shade: 4 Good Deep shade: 4/5 Good
Yellow Light shade:4/5 Very good Light shade:4/5 Good
Deep shade: 4 Good Deep shade: 4/5 Good
Red Light shade:4/5 Very good Light shade:5 Excellent
Deep shade: 4/5 Very good Deep shade:5 Excellent

Table 5: MCT/VS type reactive dyed fabric.

Fabric Color Change value Remark Staining value Remark
Blue Light shade:3/4 Average Light shade: 4/5 Very good
Deep shade:3 Fairly bad Deep shade:4 Good
Yellow Light shade:5 Excellent Light shade:4/5 Very good
Deep shade:4/5 Very Good Deep shade:4 Good
Red Light shade:5 Excellent Light shade:5 Excellent
Deep shade:5 Excellent Deep shade:4/5 Very good

Table 6: MFT/VS type reactive dye.

Fabric Color Change value Remark Staining value Remark
Blue Light shade: 3/4 Average Light shade:4/5 Very good
Deep shade: 4 Good Deep shade: 4 Good
Yellow Light shade:4/5 Very good Light shade:4/5 Very good
Deep shade:5 Excellent Deep shade:4/5 Very good
Red Light shade:4/5 Very good Light shade:4/5 Very good
Deep shade:4/5 Very good Deep shade:5 Excellent

Table 7: TFP/VS type reactive dye.

Conclusion

• Color strength is very important parameter for dyeing. Higher the color strength of reactive dyes higher the color yield and lower the dyes required to produce the same shade%. In this study color strength of MCT/VS, MFT/VSandTFP/VS reactive dyes were observed by K/S value. According to the results, MCT/VS reactive dyes showed highest color strength and MFT/VS reactive dyes showed lowest color strength. Color fastness to wash of dyed samples was also observed. MCT/VS reactive dyed fabric showed highest resistance to color fastness to wash and TFP/VS reactive dyes showed lowest resistance to color fastness to wash.

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