Department of Political Science and International Relations, Aksum University, Sweden
Received Date: December 01, 2016; Accepted Date: February 23, 2017; Published Date: March 03, 2017
Citation: Fitsum A (2017) The Role of Affirmative Action on Empowering Women’s, in the Case of L/HaHale. J Civil Legal Sci 6: 226. doi: 10.4172/2169-0170.1000226
Copyright: © 2017 Fitsum A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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In this research, the researchers mainly focus on the title of affirmative action in empowering women` in L/HaHale tabia. It is obvious that perception and attitude of women`s and administration staff influence the enforcement level in affirmative action. In addition to this study also used different variable that may affect affirmative action. In conduction, the research both qualitative and quantitative method of data collection were employed the tools for data collection were key information interview and questionnaire analyzed by using simple random sampling and non-probability analysis. The result obtained presented by using table and percentage. For success of the research both primary and secondary data were used. Finally, after summarized finding of the study, conclusions were made.
Affirmative action; Discrimination; Discrepancy; Historical legacy
Back ground of the study
The term affirmative action originated from USA to prohibit unfair discrimination against certain groups or people because of no job related characteristics in terms of civil right act 1960. It is a set of policies that are designed to promote inclusion of all individuals there by addressing concern about discrimination some form of present in the essence the late 1905. But the push is for more extensive enforcement of right movement. There are number arguments against affirmative action critical calling it “reverse discrimination” and arguing that enforce barriers between people rather than breaking down them. The low recognizes the fact that many lasses this historically pattern of exclusion has created disadvantages concern about current discrimination.
Gender in equality refers to valuing of the role of women and men. It works of stereo types and prejudices so that both sets are able to equally contribute to any social, cultural and political development within a society. Gender inequality is the result of social, cultural and political difference in their sex. Gender in equality generally deals with female and male relationship, what the difference is between them and the similarities. Why do you female are considered as minority class and what is expected from the society in order to come in equal position, perhaps if affirmative action exists the discrepancy in performance and confidence become changed .
The previous history, this some injure of female Ethiopians is long history, our sister and mothers are highly suppressed by the previous history. This is originally from some religion. Many religions give interior place to female, they perceive, as they are subordinate class. They have no value and have no any contribution in the society in any action. They would be inferior to their husband and consider as a scare to them and to the society. Recognizing of historical legacy of in equality and discrimination, women are experienced in Ethiopia. The FDRE constitution has guaranteed women`s right to affirmative action. In addition to the provision stating women`s right to affirmative action. The consecution has guaranteed equality of men and women (Art, 25) following the promulgation of the constitution. The FDRE Gov.t has declared unequivocal commitment to the development of female with the announcement upon female in 1997.
The policy primarily aims to institutionalize the political, economic and social right of women by creating an appropriate structure in government office and institution. So, that the public policy and intervention are gender sensitive and can ensure equitable development for all Ethiopian men and women .
Statement of the problem
Enforcement of affirmative action in L/HaHale, the problems are like lack of awareness about concept of affirmative actions, lack of enforcement, employment and lack of implementation problem. In the affirmative action plays an important role in building the capacity of women’s association according it contributes the following function.
1. It plays make hall in participation of women freely in different sectors such as political, economic, social, military governmental and nongovernmental and educational opportunity via knowing the right and duties.
2. The local administration of L/HaHale plays an important in the building of women`s capacity association through implementation this policy action according provides the following function such as:
• Technical support
• Borrowed of money
Improving the women`s participation in the business and development service in the support of women`s.
In general the local administration of L/HaHale tabia consists on tabia with four thousands nine hundred forty four (4944) members of women`s association in one association. However, the main problem is that very little is known affirmative action in the world in general in Ethiopia and particularly in Tigray state.
The existence of those and other problem is what the researchers for planning to conduct this research in study by taking a case study in the local administration of L/HaHale (document women`s association, 1995).
• The fundamental to study the research about the role of affirmative action and women`s empowerment tin L/HaHale is:
? Low level of participation in the leadership.
? In the group of kabele is participation is low.
? In social and water conservation is low.
? In any activity of the tabia is low, like social, political, economic, cultural participation of the tabia.
Objective of the study
The study would be try accomplish the following general objective and specific objective
The role of affirmative action and empowerment women`s in the case of L/HaHale.
1. To assess the participation of women in the political, economic and social affairs.
2. To explain the potential advantage of the affirmative action in building the equality between women’s and men in L/HaHale.
3. To assess the attitude of women’s towards affirmative action.
1. What are the positive and negative impacts of affirmative action in building and empowerment the capacity of women’s association in L/HaHale?
2. What is the role of affirmative action in empowering women’s association?
3. What ate the mechanism and procedure the improve affirmative action in building the capacity of women’s association?
Significance of the study
The study would be help to investigate the role of affirmative action in building, empowerment the capacity of women’s association through knowing the right and duties in all activities. We expected the good and effective implementation of affirmative action so the study used to.Promote improved implementation of affirmative action broadly.
1. Know about the attitude of women’s towards this affirmative action.
2. Help to create awareness about the advantage of affirmative action.
3. Help to avoid the challenge for enforcement mechanism.
Delimitation of the study (scope)
Geographically the study the is in Ethiopia, Tigray regional woreda Ahferom particularly place in. the study would worth would work, would confirm only represents in L/HaHale tabia as well as the head of the researches is the role of affirmative action in empowerment of women’s in the case of L/HaHale.
Methodology of the study is systematically and sample random sampling solves the research proposal (problem).
Limitation of the study
This research is the following limitation:
• Lack of reference book in the tabia
• Lack of time and budget
• Transport problem.
Regional and definition of affirmative action
Regions of affirmative action: The term affirmative action was first used in the United States. It first appeared in executive order 10925 which was signed by president of John Kennedy on march 6, 1961 and it was used to measures to achieve be non-discrimination in 1965 president Hyndon B. Shannon is used executive order 11,246 which refers to federal contractions to lack “affirmative to hire without regard to race religion and national origin in 1968.
Gender was added to antidiscrimination lists matching procedures in other countries are also known as reprobation in India, positive discrimination in United Kingdom and employment equality in Canada .
The employment equity act and broad based black economic empowerment act aim to promote and achieve equality in work place (in south Africa termed “equity” by advanced people form designated group) the designed groups who are too been advanced including all people of color women.
Employment equity legislation realness companies employing more the 60 people to design and implement plans to improve to representative of work force demographics and reporter to the department of labor affirmative action in Ethiopia cannot be separated from the right to equality through different places in the constitution decisive feature of the Ethiopia perspective on affirmative action the constitution as a part of human right.
The historical development brought about by the Ethiopia constitution in the commitment to redressing the historical exclusion of women, Ethiopian women have been subjected to systematic and individuals form of discrimination. The government constitutional provision is in the Article, 35/3), federal democratic republic Ethiopia (1995) .
Definition of affirmative action
Affirmative action has no clear and universal applicable definition, many have attempts to define affirmative action from different perspective and the way want it either negatively or positively Michel rose fled quoting Green await define. Affirmative action as phrase that refers to act attempts to bring members of under represents groups, usually groups that have suffer discrimination in to higher degree of participation in some beneficial program.
Likewise Gwyneth putt defines affirmative action as a policies or program that are designed to eliminate in visible as well as visible discrimination and to encourage under present groups to reach activation and encourage to reach situation where they are more likely to be the best candidate for the past place.
General affirmative action can be defined as a broad range of measures that take past disadvantage in to account and strive to correct these problems. The about working definition does not have ever give usually Fledged understanding of what affirmative action in about discussing the types of measures to be taken the degree of permissibility. The potential beneficiaries and its duration gives high attention on understanding of affirmative action.
It is often argued that affirmative action the achievements of individual such polices can be seen as suggesting that these people heed help to succeed other than doing on their own merits many nations have lows on the books which fall under the umbrella of affirmative action.
In addition, many companies and governmental agencies have policies which are designed to promote diversity proponents argue that these policies promoted under such policies but also the company and the work place as a whole because including people from diverse back grounds. Contributions to more as and the work place as whole, because including can be to more as and ways of working the direct conation of discrimination through such policies is also designed to reducing the cultural social, economic and class groups between people of afferent back grounds.
The federal constitution has recognized equality of women and put mechanisms in place to promote the enjoyment of their rights and this is clearly stated in Article 35 of the F.D.R.E constitution in such way that women’s have equal right with men in marriage as prescribed by the federal democratic republic Ethiopia .
Affirmative action in education
It is axiomatic and self-evident “that education is a key for personal development and means for the social economic and political development of country. Similar to women all over the world, education was not equally accessible for Ethiopia historical legal of male dominated educational was not equally. For Ethiopia historical legal of male dominated educational system in Ethiopia buttressed the traditional thinking on the role and capacity of women systematically excluded Ethiopia women form the educational been fits the country.
Educational equality through affirmative action: After 1990s Ethiopia took some measures to achieve gender equality in education. In 1993 long before the adoption of the new constitution the transitional government of Ethiopia (TGE) adopted the national policy of women (AIPW).
The AIPW notes the need for inclusion and participation of women in the educational sector as necessary condition for the overall development of the country. It is safe to say that taking the historical marginalization of women. The AIPW is a remarkable development Ethiopia women for which one of its promises is taking affirmative action in education .
Affirmative action in employment
The application of affirmative in the field of employment is the subject of strong challenges. Affirmative action in employment helps to bring the underutilized labor of many perilously excluded categories of the society to the market. Despite the required knowledge and skills many women do not engage in gain full employment due to the stereotypical views against women. Having this in mind the crux of the following discussion meant to analyze the existing employment legislations and their respective position affirmative action in Ethiopia.
Affirmative action in political representation
Political participation is to be all inclusive of every one in one country this is an important aspect in democracy system.
• Political exclusion of women inevitably raises questions.
In women`s entrepreneurship development
The international labor organizations women`s entrepreneurship development program is a part of small enterprise development program (SEDP). International labor organization women part of small enterprise development works on enhancing economic opportunity for women by carrying out affirmative action in support of women starting formalizing and growing heir enterprises development is highlighted in international labor organization women entrepreneurship development strategy that was adopted by the governing body in March, 2008.
• The international labor organization women development approach three fold working with government employees organizations trade unions and local community based on organization to create an enabling environment for women entrepreneurship development, that generate equality jogs building institutional capacity in women entrepreneurship development. Development of tools and support services for women entrepreneurs. It does so through targeted approaches with a clear objectives to contribute women`s economic empowerment international labor organization women`s entrepreneurship development strategy was built form the expertise developed under women’s entrepreneurship.
• The women`s entrepreneurship development strategy a flexible and innovative response to promote women`s entrepreneurship development based on local needs and circumstance.
Enabling environment for women participation
Crating enabling environment is important to promote the political participation of women the goal of equal participation of women in politics can be achieved when socio-cultural political and economic structural barriers are changed. The first important elements of enabling environment related to the nature of democracy and level of democratization in society. The participation and decentralized form of government crate greater space for citizen to participate in governance process and structures, means that through implementing affirmative action strategy the government should be care good chance for the women`s to participate quality with men`s in politics and development that provided suitable environment for the women with men .
The purpose of affirmative action
Affirmative action describes many policy aimed at historically, socio, politically non dominant groups of minority men and women of all racial groups intended to promote its access to education and employment. The motivation or purpose behind affirmative action is to redress the negative the negative effects of actual or perceived pose of current discrimination that is regarded as unfair by relevant legislative bodies.
Regarding the nature of representation of politics the system is illegitimate.
Affirmative action in the world
A class based affirmative action policy was in corporate in to the admission practice of the folkmoots selective university in Israel during the early to mid-2000. It promotes preferential treatment for academically broad line applicant form disadvantage back ground.
Affirmative action in Africa
The employment equity act and broad based black economic empowerment act aim to promote and achieve equality in work place (in South Africa termed “equity” by advanced people form designated groups). The designed groups who are too been advanced including all people of color women.
Affirmative action in Ethiopia
Affirmative action in Ethiopia cannot be operated from the right to equality through difference places in constitution decisive feature of the Ethiopia perspective on affirmative action having the Ethiopia constriction to on equal women and men in Article, 35, 1995 E.C
Affirmative action in Ethiopia is constitution provision. However the policy and practical are ineffective and hence the various groups of females.
Some ethnic groups and geographical areas continue to have limit in education political leadership.
The general objective of the study was to assess the affirmative action and challenges of enforcement on women’s affirmative action in empowerment in the case of L/HaHale. This chapter deals with the data analysis, presentation and interpretation. The data were collected form 20 respondents. Those respondents are women`s in L/HaHale tabia. The tools for data collection were interviewed. Key information and questioners analyzed by using descriptive and statically analysis, so as to determine source of data collection systematically used.
The result obtained we presented by using table and percentage.
Description of the study area
L/HaHale is located in Tigray region Central zone woreda Ahferom. It is bounded by South tabia daero Ambesa by North tabia Endaleshen by West Edagahamus by East tabia Agamo (Embassinety). In conducting this study the researcher would use both qualitative and quantitative method.
Data type and source
To conduct this study the researcher would use the primary and secondary sources. Primary sources (data) will be connected form questionnaire distributed to the selected sample population and interview.
Secondary data are collecting form published and UN published books, journals and interest books. 20 (twenty) persons were selected for questionnaires and interview of the L/HaHale tabia, as well as observation and documentation materials. Those people have given information about the study.
In conducting this study simple random sampling and nonprobability, I selected 20 persons form the total population of 4944. In conducting this study simple random sampling and non-probability tools were the type of the sampling method.
Specification simple random sampling was applicable in the research the total number of 4944, out of these 20 persons were select by the means of lottery. Including all the population in the study is both time and budget consuming then the researcher believes working on the selective sample to provide with the vital information towards the paper.
Method of data collection
Various tools would be used in order to gather adequate data questionnaire having both close ended and open ended questions would have be used because the respondents can express this idea really in written form. In addition to that questionnaire would be used in this data gathering method, more ever, document would be used as data collection tools because they can support the data gathered by the primary source.
This part of the study presents the analysis and discussion of the data gathered form questionnaires and interviews.
The data gathered is interpreted according to the methodology specified so far in chapter three of this particular study.
Demographic, characteristics of respondents
Item one shows the age category of respondents accordingly while, 20-25 for 25% and 26-30 for 40%, 31-40 for 35% item two respectively. The respondents (100%) are female in sex.
In item three of the table respondents have level of education was assessed according to the data gathered 55% and 40% of the respondents have completely primary and secondary education respectively. 5% of the respondents on the other hand were educated in higher educational institutions form this analysis one can conclude that the respondents will have a good understanding about the issue understand.
In item four (4) of the above table the researcher has fried to assess the work experience of the respondents in their organization. Hence 110% of the respondents have a 1 year experience, and 40% of the respondents have 2-3 years of experience and 30% of the respondents have 4 years of experience and above five years of the respondents has 20% respectively. The researcher expects that they could give genuine information.
The last item (five items) of the Table 1 described the material status of the respondents accordingly while 60 of the respondents were married and the 35% has unmarried the remaining 5% were divorce.
|3||Level of education||Illiterate||0||0|
|4||Work experience||1 year||2||10%|
|Above 5 years||4||20%|
Table 1: Respondents personal information.
The above Table 2 shows whether the respondents believe that the policy of affirmative action have a role in empowering women`s capacity or not, according to the data conveyed all respondents answered “yes” for the question and agreed on affirmative action`s great role in doing so. Therefore one can conclude that affirmative action is playing its great role in string thing and promoting women`s capacity.
|Q1. Do you believe that affirmative action has a great role in empowering the capacity of women`s and their association especially in the local administration of tabia L/HaHale?||Respondents|
Table 2: Respondents believe that the policy of affirmative action has a role in empowering women`s capacity or not.
Farther more those respondents were asked to justify for why they say so and majority of them wrote their justification. From these justification most common is that women`s were under savers oppression and decimation in the past regional and they hadn`t get the opportunity to realize their capacity. But since 1991 the ruling gov`t designed he affirmative action policy and it enables them to build their capacity and to participate in every activity affecting their lives.
In the above Table 3 respondents were asked if there are mechanisms used by affirmative action
Q1. Are there any mechanism used by the affirmative acting policy in empowering women`s capacity in eh local administration of L/HaHale?
Table 3: Respondents were asked if there are mechanisms used by affirmative action.
Conception that affirmative action policy to empowering women`s capacity and their organization at local administration of L/HaHale tabia. The response all the respondents are “yes” for the question provided. Therefore the researcher observed that affirmative action employees use different mechanisms to initiate and encourage women to build their capacity more ever. The respondent were kindly requested to identify the mechanisms used by affirmative action, majority of them argue that affirmative action in empowering female’s capacity and encourages them to work hard through different mechanisms. Those mechanisms include.
• Giving different kinds of training on different fields and or tasks to help them to have good understanding and awareness concerning the activities to be done.
• Supporting women`s (females in education to faster their participation in educational administration institutions and to realize their dreams.
• Providing less interest rate loans to encourage them play their role in the economic sphere and to enable them to be good entrepreneurs.
Table 4 assess whether affirmative action has a role in making women`s to have a good position in various governmental and nongovernmental organizations according all 100% of the respondents agreed with consumption that affirmative action creates a favorable condition for women`s to have a good position in different governmental and nongovernmental organization helping them empowering their potential and capacity and contribute their role in achieving a desirable situation in the organization.
Q3. Do you agree that affirmative action play great role in expanding women`s position in governmental and nongovernmental organization?
Table 4: Whether affirmative action has a role in making women`s to have a good position in various governmental and nongovernmental organizations according all 100%.
In the Table 5 describe the existence of affirmative action`s role empowering women`s association position in local administration of L/HaHale. Based on the data gathered, 20% and 30% of the respondents measured its value saying “very high” and “high respectively. 50% of them on the other hand ranked it by medium from this data one can understand that affirmative action did not work to the existence which it can play to empowering women and their association particular in the local administration L/HaHale.
Q4. What extent is affirmative action working empowering women`s and capacity in the local administration of tabia L/HaHale?
Table 5: The existence of affirmative action`s role empowering women`s association position in local administration of L/HaHale.
In the Table 6 on the other hand tries to investigate who their affirmative action ensures equality of men and women as not, accordingly, while 90% of the respondent answered yes. To the question provided the remaining 10% opposed it and said no. A part form saving yes or no these we said yes to the question were also asked the question now. As a result the majority of them wrote their responses. The most common to the majority is that during the post regimes there was no any equality among men and women. The women`s were not considered as human rather as subject and property it men`s. But at this time they are ensuring their equality by the help of affirmative action in various areas (aspects of the social life.).
Q5. Do you believe that affirmative action can ensure equality of women`s with men`s through different mechanism at different level?
Table 6: To investigate who their affirmative action ensures equality of men and women as not, accordingly.
In the above Table 7, respondents were asked if affirmative action comprises both positive and negative sides in its effort to empower and strengthen women`s 95% of the respondents answered “yes” to the question and said in addition to its positive side it has some negative points.
Q6. Do you think that affirmative action has both positive and negative sides with its role in empowering capacity of women`s with a particular reference to the local administration of tabia L/HaHale?
Table 7: If affirmative action comprises both positive and negative sides in its effort to empower and strengthen women.
According the gathered data it is only 5% of the respondent, who said affirmative action had no any negative side. Furthermore those whose response is “yes” were politely asked to justify their response. Most of them have wrote the justification that even through affirmative action is playing its potential role in the empowering and building capacity of women. It has its own negative contribution in their life. The serious problem of affirmative action now is that [5-8].
Besides to the above analyzed close ended questions, the researchers have also prepared and asked some open end questions through questionnaire and interview. Therefore, based on the data gathered the following discussion is made.
According to the majority of the respondents, in the local administration L/HaHle affirmative actions have an important and influential role in empowering women`s and their association capacity. The policy initially was designed as a remedy to correct the past discriminations and balance women`s with men`s. As a result, it was recognized as a policy and it has been working to achieve the desired objective throughout the country since its formulation as a policy. In the local administration of L/HaHale the policy was putted in to practice so for, and it is still working and striving to score a high degree of success. Hence even through there are some challenges, the policy has achieved many success and there is almost a good participation of women`s in the socio-economic and political aspects of the local administration. The women association in the local administration is actively participating in all aspects, as a result of the affirmative action policy.
Also in addition to this, according to the respondents in the local administration of L/HaHale affirmative actions have it plays an important role in empowering the capacity of women`s association for example, in employment it sought to increase on the job training opportunity that are related to occupational mobility with work place.
• To increase the member of female as women`s engaged in education opportunities with men without any discrimination.
• Women`s also to gain a multidimensional opportunity on the socio-economic development without any opposition.
Through implementing and thus policy action the local administration of L/HaHale takes all appropriate measures with a view to empowerment of women`s participation in decision making, in leading their own property and political participation by knowing their rights and responsibilities. This policy is also to ensure the quality of women with men to participate in the governmental nongovernmental sector. Generally affirmative action it has multidimensional opportunities in strengthen and changing the position of women`s on the socioeconomic development.
To this end office of L/HaHale local administration also contributes its own role in strengthen and encouraging the women`s in the local administration and their association too. It organizes the women`s of local administration of L/HaHale and initiates them to work hard by supposing financially and morally. It also recognizes by supporting of market integration and if gives, educational know how, and awareness, if gives land for production and stills through license in the suitable place. So that, according to the majority of the respondents in the local administration of L/HaHale affirmative action is good ethically and logically to increase the capacity of women`s association.
Mechanisms of affirmative action in empowering the capacity of women L/HaHale
According the majority of the respondents in the local administrations of L/HaHale affirmative action employees or used different mechanisms to initiate and encourage the capacity of women`s. moreover, the respondents were kindly requested to identify the mechanism used by affirmative action to build the capacity of women`s association and encourage them to work hard through different mechanism.
Those mechanisms include
? Supporting of women`s or female in education to faster their participation in educational opportunities and realize to their dream.
? Giving different kinds of training on different fields or tasks to help them to have a food understanding and awareness concerning the activities to be done.
? It also improving mechanism in terms of technical support, market integration, providing less interest rate loans to encourage them, improving of women`s in the production and sells process through license of suitable place.
Generally, from half can be understand that affirmative action is a reward or remedy for past discrimination against women`s and minorities. It also contributes for the socio-economy development and to expand the potential of women`s participating on their governmental and non-governmental sectors.
To this end, the local administration L/HaHale also contributing its own value in empowering capacity of women`s capacity by improving this policy of action.
In this we discuss about the conclusion and policy implications of the whole study area.
when we come to conduct the study that role of affirmative action in building the capacity of women`s in different governmental and non-governmental sectors particularly at the local administration of L/ HaHale. As it already clearly stated by the most of the respondents; affirmative action plays un breakable role not only for women`s but also for men`s with minority groups. This policy action take government as policy that helps for women`s past discriminatory groups by giving material supports such as, land production, market integration through license and to work cooperatively by diving them in financial support and technical training to engage in different sectors such as, educational services health service, economic, social and political participation freely without any hindrance form the externalities become equally shoring their decision making process both in the nongovernmental institutions and governmental institutions. In addition to this affirmative action also plays undeniable role in empowering though implemented and designed such as technical procedures, skills to give their own role in building their potential capacity in improving their own economic development as well as employment opportunities.
In addition to the above the government also cooperate women to work together in order to increase their ability skill, training and capacities through implemented this policy as a mechanism or procedure to enhance the confidences of them. In the local administration of L/HaHale there are 4944 women`s that grouped together to work cooperatively in order to strength and enhance their potential, the governmental helps them either in terms of financial support or material support. Hence there tabia in that local administration of L/ HaHale from this it concluded that affirmative action it plays a great role in empowering the capacity of women`s association.
Policy implication and recommendation
On the basis of result and conclusions, the researcher suggests the following recommendations.
? As the result indicated that affirmative action plays undeniable role empowering the capacity of women`s association. Therefore, government should have more priority to strength and enhance this policy action.
? Though affirmative action has unbreakable role in empowering the capacity of woman`s association limitation ore restriction on it is necessary. Because of the government attention on this policy action is given more than enough priority the women`s may become dependent and passive on it stead of working by themselves strongly to enhance their skill, training and knowledge.
? As the discussion indicated that, government implemented and designed the affirmative action policy to redress the past discriminatory groups, minority groups, and women`s. therefore this policy action should be not only given priority for those but also for men`s and orphan child, disabled persons, beggars and those people who cannot work themselves to save their life due to disease and any problem regards with them to become morally good and to live like each other without any shame from externalities, therefore government should give more priority on that matter when implemented and designed this policy actions.